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      Hot weather and heat extremes: health risks

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          Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015

          Background The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.
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            Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives.

            Chronic kidney disease is defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary albumin excretion, or both, and is an increasing public health issue. Prevalence is estimated to be 8-16% worldwide. Complications include increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, kidney-disease progression, acute kidney injury, cognitive decline, anaemia, mineral and bone disorders, and fractures. Worldwide, diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, but in some regions other causes, such as herbal and environmental toxins, are more common. The poorest populations are at the highest risk. Screening and intervention can prevent chronic kidney disease, and where management strategies have been implemented the incidence of end-stage kidney disease has been reduced. Awareness of the disorder, however, remains low in many communities and among many physicians. Strategies to reduce burden and costs related to chronic kidney disease need to be included in national programmes for non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Lancet
                The Lancet
                Elsevier BV
                01406736
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 398
                : 10301
                : 698-708
                Article
                10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01208-3
                34419205
                7cc28b65-75c9-49e3-9d93-f389e43ff049
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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