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      Allylmethylsulfide, a Sulfur Compound Derived from Garlic, Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats

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          Abstract

          Allylmethylsulfide (AMS) is a novel sulfur metabolite found in the garlic-fed serum of humans and animals. In the present study, we have observed that AMS is safe on chronic administration and has a potential antihypertrophic effect. Chronic administration of AMS for 30 days did not cause any significant differences in the body weight, electrocardiogram, food intake, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of vital organs. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of AMS suggests that AMS is rapidly metabolized into Allylmethylsulfoxide (AMSO) and Allylmethylsulfone (AMSO 2). To evaluate the efficacy of AMS, cardiac hypertrophy was induced by subcutaneous implantation of ALZET® osmotic minipump containing isoproterenol (~5 mg/kg/day), cotreated with AMS (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) and enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. AMS and enalapril significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy as studied by the heart weight to body weight ratio and mRNA expression of fetal genes (ANP and β-MHC). We have observed that TBARS, a parameter of lipid peroxidation, was reduced and the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were improved in the AMS and enalapril-cotreated hypertrophic hearts. The extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9) were significantly upregulated in the diseased hearts; however, with the AMS and enalapril, it was preserved. Similarly, caspases 3, 7, and 9 were upregulated in hypertrophic hearts, and with the AMS and enalapril treatment, they were reduced. Further to corroborate this finding with in vitro data, we have checked the nuclear expression of caspase 3/7 in the H9c2 cells treated with isoproterenol and observed that AMS cotreatment reduced it significantly. Histopathological investigation of myocardium suggests AMS and enalapril treatment reduced fibrosis in hypertrophied hearts. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that AMS, an active metabolite of garlic, could reduce isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and stabilizing ECM components.

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          Mechanisms of physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy

          Cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated soon after birth. Therefore, in the adult heart, instead of an increase in cardiomyocyte number, individual cardiomyocytes increase in size, and the heart develops hypertrophy to reduce ventricular wall stress and maintain function and efficiency in response to an increased workload. There are two types of hypertrophy: physiological and pathological. Hypertrophy initially develops as an adaptive response to physiological and pathological stimuli, but pathological hypertrophy generally progresses to heart failure. Each form of hypertrophy is regulated by distinct cellular signalling pathways. In the past decade, a growing number of studies have suggested that previously unrecognized mechanisms, including cellular metabolism, proliferation, non-coding RNAs, immune responses, translational regulation, and epigenetic modifications, positively or negatively regulate cardiac hypertrophy. In this Review, we summarize the underlying molecular mechanisms of physiological and pathological hypertrophy, with a particular emphasis on the role of metabolic remodelling in both forms of cardiac hypertrophy, and we discuss how the current knowledge on cardiac hypertrophy can be applied to develop novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse pathological hypertrophy.
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            PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

            This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Diabetic cardiomyopathy: mechanisms and new treatment strategies targeting antioxidant signaling pathways.

              Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic population. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest that diabetic subjects are predisposed to a distinct cardiomyopathy, independent of concomitant macro- and microvascular disorders. 'Diabetic cardiomyopathy' is characterized by early impairments in diastolic function, accompanied by the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The pathophysiology underlying diabetes-induced cardiac damage is complex and multifactorial, with elevated oxidative stress as a key contributor. We now review the current evidence of molecular disturbances present in the diabetic heart, and their role in the development of diabetes-induced impairments in myocardial function and structure. Our focus incorporates both the contribution of increased reactive oxygen species production and reduced antioxidant defenses to diabetic cardiomyopathy, together with modulation of protein signaling pathways and the emerging role of protein O-GlcNAcylation and miRNA dysregulation in the progression of diabetic heart disease. Lastly, we discuss both conventional and novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients, from inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, through recent evidence favoring supplementation of endogenous antioxidants for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene therapy targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K(p110α) signaling pathway, and miRNA dysregulation, are also reviewed. Targeting redox stress and protective protein signaling pathways may represent a future strategy for combating the ever-increasing incidence of heart failure in the diabetic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2020
                11 June 2020
                : 2020
                : 7856318
                Affiliations
                1Non-Communicable Diseases Group, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), 121001, Faridabad, India
                2Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
                3Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam 781101, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Luciana Mosca

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0403-5908
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0008-0480
                Article
                10.1155/2020/7856318
                7306095
                7cd38d5c-eba5-48fa-9373-4a18767eb4aa
                Copyright © 2020 Soheb Anwar Mohammed et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 January 2020
                : 25 March 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: Translational Health Science and Technology Institute
                Funded by: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India
                Funded by: Indian Council of Medical Research
                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine

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