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      Magnetic Resonance Signal Abnormalities and Neuropsychological Deficits in Elderly Compressed-Air Divers

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          We investigated the association between MR signal abnormalities of the central nervous system, neuropsychologic performance and exposure indices in 20 experienced elderly compressed-air divers who had no history of neurological decompression illness (DCI). Results of MRI of the brain and psychometric testing were compared with 20 matched healthy commercial employees who never dived: 60% of the divers and 45% of the controls had hyperintense MR abnormalities. Among divers, both the number and the size of abnormalities correlated with hours diving in the deep air-diving range of 40–60 m (p < 0.05). Divers’ mental flexibility and visual tracking performance were decreased in comparison with controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). Divers thus are at risk of detrimental long-term effects of compressed-air diving on the central nervous system even in the absence of a history of neurological DCI.

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          White Matter Changes on CT and MRI: An Overview of Visual Rating Scales

          Since the recognition of white matter changes on CT (leukoaraiosis), rating scales for the location and severity of white matter changes have been developed, mainly for research purposes, to investigate factors such as the relation with cognition, risk factors, and pathology. The main purpose of rating scales is to provide scores that can be used in statistical analyses. The development of the NINDS-AIREN criteria for vascular dementia have introduced a new application for these rating scales in investigating and delineating the amount of white matter changes on CT/MRI sufficient to fulfill the criteria. Furthermore, in Alzheimer’s disease, recognition of white matter changes may serve to delineate homogeneous groups and help to identify patients with different symptomatology. We reviewed the existing rating scales for CT and MRI and judged their properties and reliability. The ideal rating scale does not yet exist, but different rating scales may serve different purposes, for which some recommendations are made.
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            Electroencephalography, evoked potentials and MRI brain scans in saturation divers. An epidemiological study


              Author and article information

              Eur Neurol
              European Neurology
              S. Karger AG
              November 1999
              17 November 1999
              : 42
              : 4
              : 194-199
              aGerman Naval Medical Institute, Kronshagen, bDepartment of Medicine I, cInstitute for Psychology and dDepartment of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Germany
              8106 Eur Neurol 1999;42:194–199
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 6
              Original Paper


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