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      Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: An Overview of Mechanisms, Risk Factors, and Treatment

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          Abstract

          Cancer-associated thrombosis is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients, the most common type being venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several risk factors for developing VTE also coexist with cancer patients, such as chemotherapy and immobilisation, contributing to the increased risk cancer patients have of developing VTE compared with non-cancer patients. Cancer cells are capable of activating the coagulation cascade and other prothrombotic properties of host cells, and many anticancer treatments themselves are being described as additional mechanisms for promoting VTE. This review will give an overview of the main thrombotic complications in cancer patients and outline the risk factors for cancer patients developing cancer-associated thrombosis, focusing on VTE as it is the most common complication observed in cancer patients. The multiple mechanisms involved in cancer-associated thrombosis, including the role of anticancer drugs, and a brief outline of the current treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis will also be discussed.

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          Most cited references 123

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          Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer.

           ,  Sheela Rao,  P. J. Oates (2008)
          We evaluated capecitabine (an oral fluoropyrimidine) and oxaliplatin (a platinum compound) as alternatives to infused fluorouracil and cisplatin, respectively, for untreated advanced esophagogastric cancer. In a two-by-two design, we randomly assigned 1002 patients to receive triplet therapy with epirubicin and cisplatin plus either fluorouracil (ECF) or capecitabine (ECX) or triplet therapy with epirubicin and oxaliplatin plus either fluorouracil (EOF) or capecitabine (EOX). The primary end point was noninferiority in overall survival for the triplet therapies containing capecitabine as compared with fluorouracil and for those containing oxaliplatin as compared with cisplatin. For the capecitabine-fluorouracil comparison, the hazard ratio for death in the capecitabine group was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.99); for the oxaliplatin-cisplatin comparison, the hazard ratio for the oxaliplatin group was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.10). The upper limit of the confidence intervals for both hazard ratios excluded the predefined noninferiority margin of 1.23. Median survival times in the ECF, ECX, EOF, and EOX groups were 9.9 months, 9.9 months, 9.3 months, and 11.2 months, respectively; survival rates at 1 year were 37.7%, 40.8%, 40.4%, and 46.8%, respectively. In the secondary analysis, overall survival was longer with EOX than with ECF, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.80 in the EOX group (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.97; P=0.02). Progression-free survival and response rates did not differ significantly among the regimens. Toxic effects of capecitabine and fluorouracil were similar. As compared with cisplatin, oxaliplatin was associated with lower incidences of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, alopecia, renal toxicity, and thromboembolism but with slightly higher incidences of grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and neuropathy. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin are as effective as fluorouracil and cisplatin, respectively, in patients with previously untreated esophagogastric cancer. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN51678883 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Low-molecular-weight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

              Patients with cancer have a substantial risk of recurrent thrombosis despite the use of oral anticoagulant therapy. We compared the efficacy of a low-molecular-weight heparin with that of an oral anticoagulant agent in preventing recurrent thrombosis in patients with cancer. Patients with cancer who had acute, symptomatic proximal deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both were randomly assigned to receive low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin) at a dose of 200 IU per kilogram of body weight subcutaneously once daily for five to seven days and a coumarin derivative for six months (target international normalized ratio, 2.5) or dalteparin alone for six months (200 IU per kilogram once daily for one month, followed by a daily dose of approximately 150 IU per kilogram for five months). During the six-month study period, 27 of 336 patients in the dalteparin group had recurrent venous thromboembolism, as compared with 53 of 336 patients in the oral-anticoagulant group (hazard ratio, 0.48; P=0.002). The probability of recurrent thromboembolism at six months was 17 percent in the oral-anticoagulant group and 9 percent in the dalteparin group. No significant difference between the dalteparin group and the oral-anticoagulant group was detected in the rate of major bleeding (6 percent and 4 percent, respectively) or any bleeding (14 percent and 19 percent, respectively). The mortality rate at six months was 39 percent in the dalteparin group and 41 percent in the oral-anticoagulant group. In patients with cancer and acute venous thromboembolism, dalteparin was more effective than an oral anticoagulant in reducing the risk of recurrent thromboembolism without increasing the risk of bleeding. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                MDPI
                2072-6694
                11 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 10
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth 6100, Australia; n.abdolrazak@ 123456postgrad.curtin.edu.au (N.B.A.R.); gabrielle.jones@ 123456postgrad.curtin.edu.au (G.J.)
                [2 ]Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth 6100, Australia
                [3 ]Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth 6150, Australia; Mayank.Bhandari@ 123456health.wa.gov.au
                [4 ]School of Medicine, Curtin University, Perth 6100, Australia; m.berndt@ 123456curtin.edu.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: pat.metharom@ 123456curtin.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-08-9266-9271
                Article
                cancers-10-00380
                10.3390/cancers10100380
                6209883
                30314362
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                venous thromboembolism, thrombosis, cancer

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