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      Non-cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities: An In-depth Systematic Review

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          Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification and intervention issues and, beyond that, the relevance of non-cognitive characteristics is often left unconsidered. Accordingly, this study aims to conduct an in-depth review of the non-cognitive characteristics of these students for identification and intervention purposes. Detailed analysis was performed on 23 publications. High levels of negative emotions, low self-perception, and adverse interpersonal relationships, as well as high levels of motivation, coping skills and perseverance were found among these students. A common characteristic was a high degree of frustration with the academic situation. The study reveals that these students show considerably duality in their non-cognitive characteristics which requires tailored counseling skills to provide effective support for their learning needs.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Working memory in learning disability subgroups.

           H Swanson (1993)
          The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the degree to which working memory differences between learning-disabled and nondisabled children reflect a specific or generalized deficit, and (b) whether limitations in the enhancement of learning-disabled student's working memory performance are attributable to process or storage functions. To this end, performances of reading-disabled, math-disabled, chronological age (CA)-matched, and achievement-matched children were compared on verbal and visual-spatial working memory measures under initial, gain, and maintenance conditions. The results indicated that: (a) learning-disabled subtypes were not differentiated by their performance on verbal and visual-spatial working memory measures; and (b) learning-disabled children's working memory performance was inferior to CA-matched and superior to achievement-matched counterparts across initial, gain, and maintenance conditions. The results suggest that learning-disabled children suffer generalized working memory deficits, possibly due to storage constraints in the executive system.
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            The Underachievement of Gifted Students: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

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              Risk, Resilience, and Adjustment of Individuals with Learning Disabilities


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 April 2018
                : 9
                Special Needs Education and Clinical Educational Sciences, Behavioural and Social Sciences, Special Needs Education and Youth Care, University of Groningen , Groningen, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jesus de la Fuente, University of Almería, Spain

                Reviewed by: Kathryn Friedlander, University of Buckingham, United Kingdom; Ann Dowker, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Alexander Minnaert a.e.m.g.minnaert@

                This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2018 Beckmann and Minnaert.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 91, Pages: 20, Words: 14740
                Systematic Review


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