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      The Neuroprotective Effects of Thymoquinone: A Review

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          Abstract

          Thymoquinone (TQ), one of the main components active of Nigella sativa, exhibited very useful biomedical effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anticancer, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and antiasthmatic effects. There are several studies about pharmacological activities of TQ but its neuroprotection effects are not fully described. The literature search has indicated many studies pertaining to the effects of TQ in neurological problems such as epilepsy, parkinsonism, anxiety, and improvement of learning and memory, and so on. In addition, TQ protected brain cells from various injuries due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects in cell line and experimental animal models. The present study has been designed to review the scientific literature about the pharmacological activities of TQ to the neurological diseases. This study purposed that although experimental studies indicated the beneficial effects of TQ against nervous system problems, better designed clinical trials in humans are needed to confirm these effects.

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          Most cited references 98

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          Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

          Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.
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            A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb.

            Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
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              The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: the need for effective antioxidant therapy.

              Accumulating data indicate that oxidative stress (OS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to OS, generated in excess primarily by macrophages, have been implicated as mediators of demyelination and axonal damage in both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), its animal model. ROS cause damage to cardinal cellular components such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (e. g., RNA, DNA), resulting in cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. In addition, weakened cellular antioxidant defense systems in the central nervous system (CNS) in MS, and its vulnerability to ROS effects may increase damage. Thus, treatment with antioxidants might theoretically prevent propagation of tissue damage and improve both survival and neurological outcome. Indeed, several experimental studies have been performed to see whether dietary intake of several antioxidants prevents or reduces the progression of EAE. Although a few antioxidants showed some efficacy in these studies, little information is available on the effect of treatments with such compounds in patients with MS. Well-designed clinical studies using antioxidant intake, as well as investigations based on larger cohorts studied over a longer periods of time, are needed in order to assess whether antioxidant intake together with other conventional treatments, might be beneficial in treating MS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dose Response
                Dose Response
                DOS
                spdos
                Dose-Response
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1559-3258
                11 April 2018
                Apr-Jun 2018
                : 16
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran
                [3 ]Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mahhad, Iran
                Author notes
                Saeed Samarghandian, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran. Email: samarghandians@ 123456mums.ac.ir
                Article
                10.1177_1559325818761455
                10.1177/1559325818761455
                5898665
                © The Author(s) 2018

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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                April-June 2018

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