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      Cataract formation following vitreoretinal procedures

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          To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of cataract formation, progression, and extraction in patients that underwent vitreoretinal procedures and to evaluate factors that can potentially predispose patients to postoperative cataracts.

          Materials and methods

          The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery at the Yale Eye Center with at least 6 months of follow-up and no prior intraocular surgery were obtained. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were recorded and analyzed in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measures were defined as cataract extraction, formation, and progression after vitreoretinal procedures. The lens status of the surgical eye was recorded preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months postoperatively.


          A total of 193 eyes of 180 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The percentages of eyes with mild lens change were 96% after 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 72% after small gauge (23- and 25-gauge) PPV, 38% after scleral buckle (SB), 38% after pneumatic retinopexy (PR), and 91% after PPV plus SB (PPV+SB). Posterior subcapsular and nuclear sclerotic cataracts were the most common with almost all developing within 24 months. There was no statistically significant difference ( P=1.00) between the rate of cataract extraction after 20-gauge (41%) and small gauge PPV (42%), but there was a statistically significant difference between PPV and non-PPV (SB, 6%; PR, 7%; P<0.001) and PPV and PPV+SB groups (69%; P=0.0063).


          Cataracts were common following PPV regardless of the gauge. SB and PR led to the lowest while PPV+SB led to the highest risk of postoperative cataracts.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Macular hole surgery with and without internal limiting membrane peeling.

          To compare results of surgery for idiopathic macular hole with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in a series of consecutive patients over a 5-year period. A retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative trial with concurrent control group. Forty-four eyes with macular holes of less than or equal to 6 months duration without ILM peeling were compared to 116 eyes with ILM peeling and the same hole duration. A third group of 65 eyes with ILM peeling and duration greater than 6 months was also evaluated. All eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling, intravitreous gas, and positioning face down. No adjunctive therapies were used in any group. Comparing the closure and/or reopening rate, prognosis, visual acuity, and complications for macular holes with and without ILM peeling. All patients had postsurgical follow-up of 18 months or greater. Primary closure was significantly improved with ILM peeling with 116 of 116 eyes (100%) showing no reopenings versus 36 of 44 holes (82%) primarily closed, 9 of which (25%) reopened without ILM peeling (P: < 0.00001) in holes less than or equal to 6 months. The 27 eyes without ILM peeling that had successful surgery displayed a mean postoperative vision of 20/40, which is the same as the successful eyes with ILM peeling (P: = 0.6). The 52 stage II eyes with ILM peeling had a mean postoperative vision of 20/30, and 48 of the 52 eyes (92%) were 20/40 or better. Stage III eyes (greater than 400-microm holes) without ILM peeling had a poor prognosis, with 6 of the 25 eyes (24%) having initial surgery fail and an additional 4 of 25 eyes (16%) reopening. Without ILM peeling, holes less than 300 microm had only one reopen, whereas holes greater than or equal to 300 microm had 16 of the 17 (94%) primary failures and/or reopenings (P: < 0.001). All 12 holes that reopened and/or primarily failed were repaired with ILM peeling with excellent visual recovery. Macular holes with a duration greater than 6 months were treated with ILM peeling, and 63 of 65 holes (97%) were closed primarily and 65% had an increase in vision by two or more Snellen lines. ILM peeling significantly improves visual and anatomic success in all stages of recent and chronic macular holes and reopened and failed holes, while eliminating reopening for holes greater than 300 microm.
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            A new 25-gauge instrument system for transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy surgery.

            To introduce and evaluate the infusion and aspiration rates and operative times of the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system (TSV) DESIGN: In vitro experimental and comparative interventional study. Twenty eyes of 20 patients underwent a variety of vitreoretinal procedures using the 25-gauge TSV, including idiopathic epiretinal membrane (n = 10), macular hole (n = 4), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 3), branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 2), diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (n = 1), and 20 cases similar in diagnosis and severity were matched to provide comparison between duration of individual portions of the surgical procedures with the existing 20-gauge vitrectomy system. Description of the 25-gauge TSV is provided; infusion and aspiration rates of the 25-gauge and standard 20-gauge vitrectomy system were measured in vitro using balanced saline solution and porcine vitreous for several levels of aspirating power and bottle height, and operating times of individual portions of surgical procedures were measured for the 25-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy system. Infusion, aspiration rates, and operative times of the 20-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy system. Infusion and aspiration rates of the 25-gauge TSV system were reduced by an average of 6.9 and 6.6 times, respectively, compared with the 20-gauge system when balanced saline solution was used. The average flow rate of the Storz 25-gauge cutter (at 500 mmHg, 1500 cuts per minute [cpm]) was 40% greater than that of the 20-gauge pneumatic cutter (at 250 mmHg, 750 cpm) but about 2.3 times less than the 20-gauge high-speed cutter (at 250 mmHg, 1500 cpm). Mean total operative time was significantly greater for the 20-gauge high-speed cutter (26 minutes, 7 seconds) than for the 25-gauge vitrectomy system (17 minutes, 17 seconds) (P = 0.011). Although the infusion and aspiration rates of the 25-gauge instruments are lower than those for the 20-gauge high-speed vitrectomy system, the use of 25-gauge TVS may effectively reduce operative times of select cases that do not require the full capability of conventional vitrectomy.
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              Transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge vitrectomy.

               Claus Eckardt (2015)

                Author and article information

                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clin Ophthalmol
                Clinical Ophthalmology
                Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove Medical Press
                23 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1957-1965
                Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ron A Adelman Yale Eye Center, 40 Temple Street, 3rd floor, New Haven, CT 06510, USA Tel +1 203 785 6444 Fax +1 203 785 5909 Email ron.adelman@ 123456yale.edu
                © 2014 Feng and Adelman. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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