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      A Comprehensive Review on Optical Properties of Polymer Electrolytes and Composites

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          Polymer electrolytes and composites have prevailed in the high performance and mobile marketplace during recent years. Polymer-based solid electrolytes possess the benefits of low flammability, excellent flexibility, good thermal stability, as well as higher safety. Several researchers have paid attention to the optical properties of polymer electrolytes and their composites. In the present review paper, first, the characteristics, fundamentals, advantages and principles of various types of polymer electrolytes were discussed. Afterward, the characteristics and performance of various polymer hosts on the basis of specific essential and newly published works were described. New developments in various approaches to investigate the optical properties of polymer electrolytes were emphasized. The last part of the review devoted to the optical band gap study using two methods: Tauc’s model and optical dielectric loss parameter. Based on recently published literature sufficient quantum mechanical backgrounds were provided to support the applicability of the optical dielectric loss parameter for the band gap study. In this review paper, it was demonstrated that both Tauc’s model and optical dielectric loss should be studied to specify the type of electron transition and estimate the optical band gap accurately. Other parameters such as absorption coefficient, refractive index and optical dielectric constant were also explored.

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          Most cited references 292

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          Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films.

          The isolation of various two-dimensional (2D) materials, and the possibility to combine them in vertical stacks, has created a new paradigm in materials science: heterostructures based on 2D crystals. Such a concept has already proven fruitful for a number of electronic applications in the area of ultrathin and flexible devices. Here, we expand the range of such structures to photoactive ones by using semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/graphene stacks. Van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states of TMDC guarantees enhanced light-matter interactions, leading to enhanced photon absorption and electron-hole creation (which are collected in transparent graphene electrodes). This allows development of extremely efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with photoresponsivity above 0.1 ampere per watt (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of above 30%).
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            Wave-Number-Dependent Dielectric Function of Semiconductors

             David Penn (1962)
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              Scalable fabrication of high-power graphene micro-supercapacitors for flexible and on-chip energy storage.

              The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has increased the demand for compact on-chip energy storage. Microscale supercapacitors have great potential to complement or replace batteries and electrolytic capacitors in a variety of applications. However, conventional micro-fabrication techniques have proven to be cumbersome in building cost-effective micro-devices, thus limiting their widespread application. Here we demonstrate a scalable fabrication of graphene micro-supercapacitors over large areas by direct laser writing on graphite oxide films using a standard LightScribe DVD burner. More than 100 micro-supercapacitors can be produced on a single disc in 30 min or less. The devices are built on flexible substrates for flexible electronics and on-chip uses that can be integrated with MEMS or CMOS in a single chip. Remarkably, miniaturizing the devices to the microscale results in enhanced charge-storage capacity and rate capability. These micro-supercapacitors demonstrate a power density of ~200 W cm-3, which is among the highest values achieved for any supercapacitor.

                Author and article information

                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                20 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 13
                : 17
                [1 ]Advanced Polymeric Materials Research Lab., Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Qlyasan Street, Sulaimani 46001, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq; rebar.abdulwahid@ (R.T.A.); sarkawt.hussen@ (S.A.H.); ahang.hussein@ (A.M.H.)
                [2 ]Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani 46001, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
                [3 ]Manufacturing and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Gombak 53100, Malaysia; mohamad.brza@
                [4 ]Department of Mathematics and General Sciences, Prince Sultan University, P.O. Box 66833, Riyadh 11586, Saudi Arabia; muaffaqnofal@
                [5 ]Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regional Government, Old Campus, Sulaimani 46001, Iraq
                [6 ]Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Qlyasan Street, Sulaimani 46001, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq; wrya.karim@
                Author notes
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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