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      Factors Associated with Coronary In-Stent Restenosis after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Aims: Recently, drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been widely adopted for patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). However, whether DES implantation is associated with a reduced rate of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is unclear. We investigated the incidence of ISR and its predictors in patients on HD after DES implantation. Methods and Results: We analyzed 194 consecutive patients (331 lesions) on HD who underwent follow-up angiography after DES implantation. ISR was observed in 74 lesions (22.4%). Angiographically, the relative incidence of AHA/ACC type C lesion was increased (47 vs. 32%; p = 0.043), the minimal lumen diameter (MLD) before DES implantation was smaller (0.82 ± 0.49 vs. 0.97 ± 0.45 mm; p < 0.01), and the lesion length (LL) was increased (30.2 ± 16.1 vs. 24.4 ± 12.1 mm; p = 0.023) in lesions with ISR compared to those without ISR. The rate of rotational atherectomy use was also increased in lesions with ISR compared to those without ISR (50% vs. 25%; p < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, the MLD before DES implantation (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.91, p = 0.024), LL (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04, p = 0.030) and the use of rotational atherectomy (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.55–4.72, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of ISR. The incidence of ISR was similar between lesions treated with the first-generation (25.8%) and the second-generation DESs (20.4%). Conclusions: ISR was observed in 74 lesions (22.4%). A small MLD, long LL, and the use of rotational atherectomy were independent predictors of ISR after DES implantation in patients on HD. There was no significant difference in the ISR rate between the first- and the second-generation DESs.

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          Most cited references31

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          Circulating endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk.

          Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease progression. We measured the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral-blood samples from 45 men (mean [+/-SE] age, 50+/-2 years). The subjects had various degrees of cardiovascular risk but no history of cardiovascular disease. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function was assessed by high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery. We observed a strong correlation between the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and the subjects' combined Framingham risk factor score (r=-0.47, P=0.001). Measurement of flow-mediated brachial-artery reactivity also revealed a significant relation between endothelial function and the number of progenitor cells (r=0.59, P<0.001). Indeed, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were a better predictor of vascular reactivity than was the presence or absence of conventional risk factors. In addition, endothelial progenitor cells from subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events had higher rates of in vitro senescence than cells from subjects at low risk. In healthy men, levels of endothelial progenitor cells may be a surrogate biologic marker for vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. These findings suggest that endothelial injury in the absence of sufficient circulating progenitor cells may affect the progression of cardiovascular disease. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis.

            Cardiovascular disease is common in patients on long-term dialysis, and it accounts for 44 percent of overall mortality in this group. We undertook a study to assess long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients in the United States who were receiving long-term dialysis. Patients on dialysis who were hospitalized during the period from 1977 to 1995 for a first myocardial infarction after the initiation of renal-replacement therapy were retrospectively identified from the U.S. Renal Data System data base. Overall mortality and mortality from cardiac causes (including all in-hospital deaths) were estimated by the life-table method. The effect of independent predictors on survival was examined in a Cox regression model with adjustment for existing illnesses. The overall mortality (+/-SE) after acute myocardial infarction among 34,189 patients on long-term dialysis was 59.3+/-0.3 percent at one year, 73.0+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 89.9+/-0.2 percent at five years. The mortality from cardiac causes was 40.8+/-0.3 percent at one year, 51.8+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 70.2+/-0.4 percent at five years. Patients who were older or had diabetes had higher mortality than patients without these characteristics. Adverse outcomes occurred even in patients who had acute myocardial infarction in 1990 through 1995. Also, the mortality rate after myocardial infarction was considerably higher for patients on long-term dialysis than for renal-transplant recipients. Patients on dialysis who have acute myocardial infarction have high mortality from cardiac causes and poor long-term survival.
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              Short- and long-term outcomes with drug-eluting and bare-metal coronary stents: a mixed-treatment comparison analysis of 117 762 patient-years of follow-up from randomized trials.

              Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been in clinical use for nearly a decade; however, the relative short- and long-term efficacy and safety of DES compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) and among the DES types are less well defined. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for randomized clinical trials, until March 2012, that compared any of the Food and Drug Administration-approved durable stent and polymer DES (sirolimus-eluting stent [SES], paclitaxel-eluting stent [PES], everolimus-eluting stent [EES], zotarolimus-eluting stent [ZES], and ZES-Resolute [ZES-R]) with each other or against BMS for de novo coronary lesions, enrolling at least 100 patients and with follow-up of at least 6 months. Short-term (≤ 1 year) and long-term efficacy (target-vessel revascularization, target-lesion revascularization) and safety (death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis) outcomes were evaluated and trial-level data pooled by both mixed-treatment comparison and direct comparison analyses. From 76 randomized clinical trials with 117 762 patient-years of follow-up, compared with BMS, each DES reduced long-term target-vessel revascularization (39%-61%), but the magnitude varied by DES type (EES~SES~ZES-R>PES~ZES>BMS), with a >42% probability that EES had the lowest target-vessel revascularization rate. There was no increase in the risk of any long-term safety outcomes, including stent thrombosis, with any DES (versus BMS). In addition, there was reduction in myocardial infarction (all DES except PES versus BMS) and stent thrombosis (with EES versus BMS: Rate ratio, 0.51; 95% credibility interval, 0.35-0.73). The safest DES appeared to be EES (>86% probability), with reduction in myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis compared with BMS. Short-term outcomes were similar to long-term outcomes, with SES, ZES-R, and everolimus-eluting stent being the most efficacious and EES being the safest stent. DES are highly efficacious at reducing the risk of target-vessel revascularization without an increase in any safety outcomes, including stent thrombosis. However, among the DES types, there were considerable differences, such that EES, SES, and ZES-R were the most efficacious and EES was the safest stent.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2022
                April 2022
                14 July 2021
                : 51
                : 4
                : 383-389
                Affiliations
                Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine II, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan
                Article
                517279 Blood Purif 2022;51:383–389
                10.1159/000517279
                34261068
                7cf9a87f-867f-4b04-8fb5-f040d23a990f
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 05 November 2020
                : 18 May 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Hemodialysis – Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Drug-eluting stent,Vascular calcification,Stenosis,Cardiovascular disease,Hemodialysis

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