Urinary biomonitoring provides the most accurate arsenic exposure assessment; however, to improve the risk assessment, arsenic-related metabolic biomarkers are required to understand the internal processes that may be perturbed, which may, in turn, link the exposure to a specific health outcome. This study aimed to investigate arsenic-related urinary metabolome changes and identify dose-dependent metabolic biomarkers as a proof-of-concept of the information that could be obtained by combining metabolomics and targeted analyses. Urinary arsenic species such as inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in a Chinese adult male cohort. Urinary metabolomics was conducted using HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Arsenic-related metabolic biomarkers were investigated by comparing the samples of the first and fifth quintiles of arsenic exposure classifications using a partial least-squares discriminant model. After the adjustments for age, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption, five potential biomarkers related to arsenic exposure (i.e., testosterone, guanine, hippurate, acetyl- N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine, and serine) were identified from 61 candidate metabolites; these biomarkers suggested that endocrine disruption and oxidative stress were associated with urinary arsenic levels. Testosterone, guanine, and hippurate showed a high or moderate ability to discriminate the first and fifth quintiles of arsenic exposure with area-under-curve (AUC) values of 0.89, 0.87, and 0.83, respectively; their combination pattern showed an AUC value of 0.91 with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 80%. Arsenic dose-dependent AUC value changes were also observed. This study demonstrated that metabolomics can be used to investigate arsenic-related biomarkers of metabolic changes; the dose-dependent trends of arsenic exposure to these biomarkers may translate into the potential use of metabolic biomarkers in arsenic risk assessment. Since this was a proof-of-concept study, more research is needed to confirm the relationships we observed between arsenic exposure and biochemical changes.