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      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009

        1 , * , 1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 1

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Open Access (OA) is a model for publishing scholarly peer reviewed journals, made possible by the Internet. The full text of OA journals and articles can be freely read, as the publishing is funded through means other than subscriptions. Empirical research concerning the quantitative development of OA publishing has so far consisted of scattered individual studies providing brief snapshots, using varying methods and data sources. This study adopts a systematic method for studying the development of OA journals from their beginnings in the early 1990s until 2009. Because no comprehensive index of OA articles exists, systematic manual data collection from journal web sites was conducted based on journal-level data extracted from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Due to the high number of journals registered in the DOAJ, almost 5000 at the time of the study, stratified random sampling was used. A separate sample of verified early pioneer OA journals was also studied. The results show a very rapid growth of OA publishing during the period 1993–2009. During the last year an estimated 191 000 articles were published in 4769 journals. Since the year 2000, the average annual growth rate has been 18% for the number of journals and 30% for the number of articles. This can be contrasted to the reported 3,5% yearly volume increase in journal publishing in general. In 2009 the share of articles in OA journals, of all peer reviewed journal articles, reached 7,7%. Overall, the results document a rapid growth in OA journal publishing over the last fifteen years. Based on the sampling results and qualitative data a division into three distinct periods is suggested: The Pioneering years (1993–1999), the Innovation years (2000–2004), and the Consolidation years (2005–2009).

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          Most cited references 22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009

          Background The Internet has recently made possible the free global availability of scientific journal articles. Open Access (OA) can occur either via OA scientific journals, or via authors posting manuscripts of articles published in subscription journals in open web repositories. So far there have been few systematic studies showing how big the extent of OA is, in particular studies covering all fields of science. Methodology/Principal Findings The proportion of peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, which are available openly in full text on the web, was studied using a random sample of 1837 titles and a web search engine. Of articles published in 2008, 8,5% were freely available at the publishers' sites. For an additional 11,9% free manuscript versions could be found using search engines, making the overall OA percentage 20,4%. Chemistry (13%) had the lowest overall share of OA, Earth Sciences (33%) the highest. In medicine, biochemistry and chemistry publishing in OA journals was more common. In all other fields author-posted manuscript copies dominated the picture. Conclusions/Significance The results show that OA already has a significant positive impact on the availability of the scientific journal literature and that there are big differences between scientific disciplines in the uptake. Due to the lack of awareness of OA-publishing among scientists in most fields outside physics, the results should be of general interest to all scholars. The results should also interest academic publishers, who need to take into account OA in their business strategies and copyright policies, as well as research funders, who like the NIH are starting to require OA availability of results from research projects they fund. The method and search tools developed also offer a good basis for more in-depth studies as well as longitudinal studies.
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            Sampling: Design and Analysis

             SL Lohr,  S. Lohr (1999)
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              The growth and number of journals

               Michael Mabe (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2011
                13 June 2011
                : 6
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]HANKEN School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland
                [2 ]Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
                Universidade de Brasília, Brazil
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: ML PW HB LN B-CB TH. Performed the experiments: ML PW HB LN TH. Analyzed the data: ML PW HB B-CB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PW. Wrote the paper: ML PW HB LN B-CB.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-02968
                10.1371/journal.pone.0020961
                3113847
                21695139
                Laakso et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine
                Non-Clinical Medicine
                Medical Journals
                Science Policy
                Research Assessment
                Publication Practices
                Research Funding
                Science Policy and Economics
                Technology Development
                Social and Behavioral Sciences
                Communications
                Media Studies
                Information Science
                Information Storage and Retrieval

                Uncategorized

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