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      Three new anthraquinone derivatives isolated from Symplocos racemosa and their antibiofilm activity

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          Abstract

          Three new alkyl substituted anthraquinone derivatives, trivially named as symploquinones AC (Compounds 1-3) were isolated from Symplocos racemosa. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, Mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques). The resulting data were also compared with the reported literature. These compounds were then subjected to antibacterial or antibiofilm testing. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good antibacterial activity in the concentration range of 160–83 μg·mL −1 against Streptococcus mutans, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Both compounds were further screened for anti-biofilm activity, which revealed promising activities at sub-MIC concentrations. None of the compounds were found to be active against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CJNM
          Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
          Elsevier
          1875-5364
          20 December 2017
          : 15
          : 12
          : 944-949
          Affiliations
          1Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad-22060, Pakistan
          2Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi-75270, Pakistan
          3Department of Geology, University of Swabi Anbar-23430, KPK, Pakistan
          4Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
          5Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
          6Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad-22060, Pakistan
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: Umar Farooq, E-mail: umarf@ 123456ciit.net.pk ; Ajmal Khan, E-mail: ajmalkhan@ 123456ciit.net.pk ; E-mail: Afsar Khan, afsarkhan@ 123456ciit.net.pk

          These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

          Article
          S1875-5364(18)30011-6
          10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30011-6
          Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
          Funding
          Funded by: Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan for financial support under NRPU programme
          Award ID: 20-2003/NRPU
          This work was supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan for financial support under NRPU programme (No. 20-2003/NRPU) and COMSATS Abbottabad for financial support.

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