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      Thyroid hormone concentrations in severely or critically ill patients with COVID-19

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          Abstract

          Objective

          COVID-19 is a new coronavirus infectious disease. We aimed to study the characteristics of thyroid hormone levels in patients with COVID-19 and to explore whether thyroid hormone predicts all-cause mortality of severely or critically ill patients.

          Methods

          The clinical data of 100 patients with COVID-19, who were admitted to Wuhan Tongji Hospital from February 8 to March 8, 2020, were analyzed in this retrospective study. The patients were followed up for 6–41 days. Patients were grouped into non-severe illness and severe or critical illness, which included survivors and non-survivors. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality in association with continuous and the lower two quartiles of thyroid hormone concentrations in severely or critically ill patients.

          Results

          The means of free T3 (FT3) were 4.40, 3.73 and 2.76 pmol/L in non-severely ill patients, survivors and non-survivors, respectively. The lower (versus upper) two quartiles of FT3 was associated with all-cause mortality HR (95% CI) of 9.23 (2.01, 42.28). The HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in association with continuous FT3 concentration was 0.41 (0.21, 0.81). In the multivariate-adjusted models, free T4 (FT4), TSH and FT3/FT4 were not significantly related to all-cause mortality. Patients with FT3 less than 3.10 pmol/L had increased all-cause mortality.

          Conclusion

          FT3 concentration was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 than in non-severely ill patients. Reduced FT3 independently predicted all-cause mortality of patients with severe COVID-19.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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            COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

            As of March 12, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been confirmed in 125 048 people worldwide, carrying a mortality of approximately 3·7%, 1 compared with a mortality rate of less than 1% from influenza. There is an urgent need for effective treatment. Current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals and vaccines. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subgroup of patients with severe COVID-19 might have a cytokine storm syndrome. We recommend identification and treatment of hyperinflammation using existing, approved therapies with proven safety profiles to address the immediate need to reduce the rising mortality. Current management of COVID-19 is supportive, and respiratory failure from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality. 2 Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is an under-recognised, hyperinflammatory syndrome characterised by a fulminant and fatal hypercytokinaemia with multiorgan failure. In adults, sHLH is most commonly triggered by viral infections 3 and occurs in 3·7–4·3% of sepsis cases. 4 Cardinal features of sHLH include unremitting fever, cytopenias, and hyperferritinaemia; pulmonary involvement (including ARDS) occurs in approximately 50% of patients. 5 A cytokine profile resembling sHLH is associated with COVID-19 disease severity, characterised by increased interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, and tumour necrosis factor-α. 6 Predictors of fatality from a recent retrospective, multicentre study of 150 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China, included elevated ferritin (mean 1297·6 ng/ml in non-survivors vs 614·0 ng/ml in survivors; p 39·4°C 49 Organomegaly None 0 Hepatomegaly or splenomegaly 23 Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly 38 Number of cytopenias * One lineage 0 Two lineages 24 Three lineages 34 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 4·0 mmol/L 64 Fibrinogen (g/L) >2·5 g/L 0 ≤2·5 g/L 30 Ferritin ng/ml 6000 ng/ml 50 Serum aspartate aminotransferase <30 IU/L 0 ≥30 IU/L 19 Haemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate No 0 Yes 35 Known immunosuppression † No 0 Yes 18 The Hscore 11 generates a probability for the presence of secondary HLH. HScores greater than 169 are 93% sensitive and 86% specific for HLH. Note that bone marrow haemophagocytosis is not mandatory for a diagnosis of HLH. HScores can be calculated using an online HScore calculator. 11 HLH=haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. * Defined as either haemoglobin concentration of 9·2 g/dL or less (≤5·71 mmol/L), a white blood cell count of 5000 white blood cells per mm3 or less, or platelet count of 110 000 platelets per mm3 or less, or all of these criteria combined. † HIV positive or receiving longterm immunosuppressive therapy (ie, glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine).
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              Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study

              Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhujihong64@sina.com
                xianghai_zhou@bjmu.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Endocrinol Invest
                J Endocrinol Invest
                Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0391-4097
                1720-8386
                2 November 2020
                : 1-10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411634.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0632 4559, Emergency Department, , Peking University People’s Hospital, ; No.11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.411634.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0632 4559, Trauma Center, , Peking University People’s Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                [3 ]GRID grid.411634.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0632 4559, Department of Critical Care Medicine, , Peking University People’s Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                [4 ]GRID grid.411642.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0605 3760, Department of Critical Care Unit, , Peking University Third Hospital, ; Beijing, China
                [5 ]GRID grid.411634.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0632 4559, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, , Peking University People’s Hospital, ; No.11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044 China
                Article
                1460
                10.1007/s40618-020-01460-w
                7605732
                33140379
                © Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funding
                Funded by: the Major Chronic Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Control Research, National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFC1305600
                Award ID: 2016YFC1305603
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Original Article

                thyroid hormone, nonthyroidal illness, covid-19, mortality

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