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      Dysesthesia symptoms produced by sensorimotor incongruence in healthy volunteers: an electroencephalogram study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          Pathological pain such as phantom limb pain is caused by sensorimotor incongruence. Several studies with healthy participants have clearly indicated that dysesthesia, which is similar to pathological pain, is caused by incongruence between proprioception and/or motor intention and visual feedback. It is not clear to what extent dysesthesia may be caused by incongruence between motor intention and visual feedback or by incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback. The aim of this study was to clarify the neurophysiology of these factors by analyzing electroencephalograms (EEGs).

          Methods

          In total, 18 healthy participants were recruited for this study. Participants were asked to perform repetitive flexion/extension exercises with their elbows in a congruent/incongruent position while viewing the activity in a mirror. EEGs were performed to determine cortical activation during sensorimotor congruence and incongruence.

          Results

          In the high-frequency alpha band (10–12 Hz), numeric rating scale scores of a feeling of peculiarity were significantly correlated with event-related desynchronization/synchronization under the incongruence and proprioception conditions associated with motor intention and visual feedback (right inferior parietal region; r=−0.63, P<0.01) and between proprioception and visual feedback (right temporoparietal region; r=−0.49 and r=−0.50, P<0.05). In these brain regions, there was a region in which incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback and between motor intention and visual feedback caused an increase in activity.

          Conclusion

          The present findings suggest that neural mechanisms of dysesthesia are caused by incongruence between proprioception associated with motor intention and visual feedback and, in particular, are a result of incongruence between proprioception only and visual feedback.

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          Most cited references 36

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          EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis.

          Evidence is presented that EEG oscillations in the alpha and theta band reflect cognitive and memory performance in particular. Good performance is related to two types of EEG phenomena (i) a tonic increase in alpha but a decrease in theta power, and (ii) a large phasic (event-related) decrease in alpha but increase in theta, depending on the type of memory demands. Because alpha frequency shows large interindividual differences which are related to age and memory performance, this double dissociation between alpha vs. theta and tonic vs. phasic changes can be observed only if fixed frequency bands are abandoned. It is suggested to adjust the frequency windows of alpha and theta for each subject by using individual alpha frequency as an anchor point. Based on this procedure, a consistent interpretation of a variety of findings is made possible. As an example, in a similar way as brain volume does, upper alpha power increases (but theta power decreases) from early childhood to adulthood, whereas the opposite holds true for the late part of the lifespan. Alpha power is lowered and theta power enhanced in subjects with a variety of different neurological disorders. Furthermore, after sustained wakefulness and during the transition from waking to sleeping when the ability to respond to external stimuli ceases, upper alpha power decreases, whereas theta increases. Event-related changes indicate that the extent of upper alpha desynchronization is positively correlated with (semantic) long-term memory performance, whereas theta synchronization is positively correlated with the ability to encode new information. The reviewed findings are interpreted on the basis of brain oscillations. It is suggested that the encoding of new information is reflected by theta oscillations in hippocampo-cortical feedback loops, whereas search and retrieval processes in (semantic) long-term memory are reflected by upper alpha oscillations in thalamo-cortical feedback loops. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
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            The role of the right temporoparietal junction in social interaction: how low-level computational processes contribute to meta-cognition.

            Accumulating evidence from cognitive neuroscience indicates that the right inferior parietal cortex, at the junction with the posterior temporal cortex, plays a critical role in various aspects of social cognition such as theory of mind and empathy. With a quantitative meta-analysis of 70 functional neuroimaging studies, the authors demonstrate that this area is also engaged in lower-level (bottom-up) computational processes associated with the sense of agency and reorienting attention to salient stimuli. It is argued that this domain-general computational mechanism is crucial for higher level social cognitive processing.
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              Motor imagery activates primary sensorimotor area in humans.

              The spatiotemporal patterns of Rolandic mu and beta rhythms were studied during motor imagery with a dense array of EEG electrodes. The subjects were instructed to imagine movements of either the right or the left hand, corresponding to visual stimuli on a computer screen. It was found that unilateral motor imagery results in a short-lasting and localized EEG change over the primary sensorimotor area. The Rolandic rhythms displayed an event-related desynchronization (ERD) only over the contralateral hemisphere. In two of the three investigated subjects, an enhanced Rolandic rhythm was found over the ipsilateral side. The pattern of EEG desynchronization related to imagination of a movement was similar to the pattern during planning of a voluntary movement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2016
                08 December 2016
                : 9
                : 1197-1204
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurorehabilitation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, Nara
                [2 ]Department of Rehabilitation, Watanabe Hospital, Aichi
                [3 ]Department of Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara
                [4 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kyoto Tachibana University, Kyoto, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Osamu Katayama, Department of Neurorehabilitation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umami-naka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara 635-0832, Japan, Tel +81 745 54 1601, Fax +81 745 54 1600, Email b6725634@ 123456kio.ac.jp
                Article
                jpr-9-1197
                10.2147/JPR.S122564
                5153295
                © 2016 Katayama et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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