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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Metabolite Profiling in Anticancer Drug Development: A Systematic Review


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          Drug metabolism is one of the most important pharmacokinetic processes and plays an important role during the stage of drug development. The metabolite profile investigation is important as the metabolites generated could be beneficial for therapy or leading to serious toxicity. This systematic review aims to summarize the research articles relating to the metabolite profile investigation of conventional drugs and herb-derived compounds for cancer chemotherapy, to examine factors influencing metabolite profiling of these drugs/compounds, and to determine the relationship between therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of their metabolites. The literature search was performed through PubMed and ScienceDirect databases up to January 2019. Out of 830 published articles, 78 articles were included in the analysis based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both phase I and II enzymes metabolize the anticancer agents/herb-derived compounds . The major phase I reactions include oxidation/hydroxylation and hydrolysis, while the major phase II reactions are glucuronidation, methylation, and sulfation. Four main factors were found to influence metabolite formation, including species, gender, and route and dose of drug administration. Some metabolites were identified as active or toxic metabolites. This information is critical for cancer chemotherapy and anticancer drug development.

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          Anticancer and apoptosis-inducing effects of quercetin in vitro and in vivo

          The present study focused on the elucidation of the putative anticancer potential of quercetin. The anticancer activity of quercetin at 10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 µM was assessed in vitro by MMT assay in 9 tumor cell lines (colon carcinoma CT-26 cells, prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cells, human prostate PC3 cells, pheocromocytoma PC12 cells, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells, acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 T-cells, human myeloma U266B1 cells, human lymphoid Raji cells and ovarian cancer CHO cells). Quercetin was found to induce the apoptosis of all the tested cancer cell lines at the utilized concentrations. Moreover, quercetin significantly induced the apoptosis of the CT-26, LNCaP, MOLT-4 and Raji cell lines, as compared to control group (P<0.001), as demonstrated by Annexin V/PI staining. In in vivo experiments, mice bearing MCF-7 and CT-26 tumors exhibited a significant reduction in tumor volume in the quercetin-treated group as compared to the control group (P<0.001). Taken together, quercetin, a naturally occurring compound, exhibits anticancer properties both in vivo and in vitro.
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            Metabolism and anticancer activity of the curcumin analogue, dimethoxycurcumin.

            The plant-derived compound curcumin has shown promising abilities as a cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy agent in vitro and in vivo but exhibits poor bioavailability. Therefore, there is a need to investigate modified curcumin congeners for improved anticancer activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The synthetic curcumin analogue dimethoxycurcumin was compared with curcumin for ability to inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of human HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro by estimating the GI(50) and LC(50) values and detecting the extent of apoptosis by flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle. Metabolic stability and/or identification of metabolites were evaluated by recently developed mass spectrometric approaches after incubation with mouse and human liver microsomes and cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, circulating levels of dimethoxycurcumin and curcumin were determined in mice following i.p. administration. Dimethoxycurcumin is significantly more potent than curcumin in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in HCT116 cells treated for 48 h. Nearly 100% of curcumin but <30% of dimethoxycurcumin was degraded in cells treated for 48 h, and incubation with liver microsomes confirmed the limited metabolism of dimethoxycurcumin. Both compounds were rapidly degraded in vivo but dimethoxycurcumin was more stable. Compared with curcumin, dimethoxycurcumin is (a) more stable in cultured cells, (b) more potent in the ability to kill cancer cells by apoptosis, (c) less extensively metabolized in microsomal systems, and (d) more stable in vivo. It is likely that the differential extent of apoptosis induced by curcumin and dimethoxycurcumin in vitro is associated with the metabolite profiling and/or the extent of stability.
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              Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling identifies SN30000 and SN29751 as tirapazamine analogues with improved tissue penetration and hypoxic cell killing in tumors.

              Tirapazamine (TPZ) has attractive features for targeting hypoxic cells in tumors but has limited clinical activity, in part because of poor extravascular penetration. Here, we identify improved TPZ analogues by using a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PKPD) model that considers tissue penetration explicitly during lead optimization. The SR-PKPD model was used to guide the progression of 281 TPZ analogues through a hierarchical screen. For compounds exceeding hypoxic selectivity thresholds in single-cell cultures, SR-PKPD model parameters (kinetics of bioreductive metabolism, clonogenic cell killing potency, diffusion coefficients in multicellular layers, and plasma pharmacokinetics at well tolerated doses in mice) were measured to prioritize testing in xenograft models in combination with radiation. SR-PKPD-guided lead optimization identified SN29751 and SN30000 as the most promising hypoxic cytotoxins from two different structural subseries. Both were reduced to the corresponding 1-oxide selectively under hypoxia by HT29 cells, with an oxygen dependence quantitatively similar to that of TPZ. SN30000, in particular, showed higher hypoxic potency and selectivity than TPZ in tumor cell cultures and faster diffusion through HT29 and SiHa multicellular layers. Both compounds also provided superior plasma PK in mice and rats at equivalent toxicity. In agreement with SR-PKPD predictions, both were more active than TPZ with single dose or fractionated radiation against multiple human tumor xenografts. SN30000 and SN29751 are improved TPZ analogues with potential for targeting tumor hypoxia in humans. Novel SR-PKPD modeling approaches can be used for lead optimization during anticancer drug development. ©2010 AACR.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                09 April 2020
                : 14
                : 1401-1444
                [1 ]Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University , Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
                [2 ]Center of Excellence in Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University , Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
                [3 ]Drug Discovery and Development Center, Office of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Thammasat University , Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kesara Na-Bangchang Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University (Rangsit Center) , 99 Moo 18, Paholyothin Road, Klongnung, Klongluang, Pathum Thani12120, ThailandTel +66 2 564 4400 ext 1800Fax +66 2 564 4398 Email kesaratmu@yahoo.com
                Author information
                © 2020 Muhamad and Na-Bangchang.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 01 July 2019
                : 20 March 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 101, Pages: 44
                This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                metabolism,metabolite profile,anticancer,herbal medicine,cancer


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