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      Recurrent benign adrenal pheochromocytomas associated with hemihypertrophy


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          We report a case of a female with hemihypertrophy, who developed five recurrences of pheochromocytomas until the age of 35. Timely follow-up of the patient's blood pressure assisted in early diagnosis and treatment of recurrent tumors.

          Learning points

          • Recurrent benign pheochromocytomas should raise suspicion of a genetic syndrome.

          • A pheochromocytoma at a young age has a high propensity to recur and strict follow-up is mandatory.

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          Most cited references18

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          Year of diagnosis, features at presentation, and risk of recurrence in patients with pheochromocytoma or secreting paraganglioma.

          Pheochromocytoma or secreting paraganglioma may recur after initial surgery. Diagnostic methods have improved in recent decades. We determined whether features at presentation have changed over time and are associated with long-term outcome. In 192 patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma seen between 1975 and 2003, we compared time from onset of hypertension to first operation, total metanephrine excretion, tumor size and site, the proportion of cases presenting as incidentalomas, and the probability of recurrence according to date of operation (divided into quartiles). The duration of hypertension and tumor size at first operation decreased significantly over time. Right-sided adrenal tumors were more frequent and larger, excreted greater amounts of metanephrines, and presented more frequently as incidentalomas than left-sided tumors. Age, familial disease, and tumor site and size were independent predictors of recurrence. The risk of recurrence was 3.4-fold higher in patients with familial disease than in those with sporadic tumors; it was, respectively, 3.1- and 11.2-fold higher in patients with right adrenal and extraadrenal tumors than in patients with left adrenal tumors. In conclusion, pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas can now be diagnosed earlier, with smaller tumors, and more frequently as incidentalomas. Familial, right adrenal, and extraadrenal tumors recur more frequently than left adrenal tumors.
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            Clinical features and natural history of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: presentation of 74 new cases.

            Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital overgrowth syndrome with variable expression. To define the range and frequency of complications in BWS, we have studied a cohort of 76 affected patients (two previously reported). The most frequent complications were macroglossia (97%), abdominal wall defect (80%) and birth weight or postnatal growth > 90th centile (88%). Other common features were ear creases/pits (76%), facial naevus flammeus (62%), nephromegaly (59%) and hypoglycaemia (63%). Rarer complications included hemihypertrophy (24%), moderate/severe developmental delay (4%), congenital heart defects (6.5%), polydactyly (4%), neoplasia (4%) and cleft palate (2.5%). Pre-term labour occurred in 53% and polyhydramnios in 33% of BWS pregnancies. The six deaths all occurred in babies born pre-term, three of whom had major congenital abnormalities. Five patients (6.5%) from four kindreds had an unequivocal family history of BWS, but 15 of 68 apparently sporadic cases had a relative with possible BWS (minor features only). Incomplete penetrance may lead to familial BWS being underdiagnosed.
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              Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndromes: genetics and management update.

              Pheochromocytomas (pheos) and paragangliomas (pgls) are rare tumours of the autonomic nervous system, originating from paraganglia, which are dispersed neuroendocrine organs characterized by catecholamine and peptide-producing cells derived from the neural crest. Medical textbooks have traditionally suggested that 10% of pheos are heritable. However, the frequency of heritable pheo has been underestimated. Three syndromic conditions-Von Hippel-Lindau (vhl), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (men2), and neurofibromatosis type 1 (nf1)-and three genes-subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex: SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD-are established causes of hereditary pheo-pgl. In the last few years, four new genes (SDHA, SDHAF2, MAX, and TMEM127) have been found to be associated with predisposition to these tumours. The present review, illustrated by three case reports, gives an update of the genetic basis of pheo-pgl and of the parent-of-origin effect implicated in the transmission of SDHD and SDHAF2. We discuss the referral criteria that should guide the decision to offer genetic testing to affected patients. We also specify the genes that are most likely implicated-based on particular features such as malignancy, bilateralism, or childhood-onset-to help geneticists efficiently order appropriate genetic tests. Finally, we review the screening recommendations for carriers of a pheo-pgl predisposition mutation.

                Author and article information

                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                EDM Case Reports
                Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                1 July 2014
                : 2014
                : 140041
                [1 ]Hypertension Excellence Center, First Department of Internal Medicine , AHEPA University Hospital , Thessaloniki, Greece
                [2 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism , AHEPA University Hospital , Thessaloniki, Greece
                [3 ]Second Department of Internal Medicine , Papanikolaou General Hospital , Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to M Yavropoulou Email: margia@ 123456med.auth.gr
                © 2014 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

                : 19 June 2014
                : 3 July 2014
                Unique/Unexpected Symptoms or Presentations of a Disease


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