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      Cytokine Removal in Extracorporeal Blood Purification: An in vitro Study

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Cytokines are among the main target substances that have to be removed effectively in order to improve the patient’s health status in the treatment of sepsis, septic shock, and liver diseases. Although there are various medical devices commercially available, the success of their clinical use is limited. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare 3 different medical devices with respect to their clearance for the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The medical devices that were tested are the whole blood adsorbent CytoSorb, the high cutoff filter EMiC2, and the hemofilter HemofeelCH 1.8. Methods: The study was carried out on the multiFiltrate machine with 1 L human plasma for 8 h. Samples for cytokine quantification were taken at defined time points from the plasma pool. Each experiment was conducted in triplicates, and clearance was calculated for all tested cytokines. Results: All 3 medical devices showed good cytokine removal. The highest clearance for all cytokines was achieved by hemoperfusion with Cytosorb. IL-8 and IL-6 clearance were higher with Hemofeel (continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration) than with EMiC2 (continuous venovenous hemodialysis) because the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based membrane Hemofeel is able to remove these 2 cytokines by adsorption. Protein and albumin loss was highest withCytosorb and lowest with EMiC2. Conclusion: The mechanisms of cytokine removal by blood purification include convection, diffusion, and adsorption. PMMA-based filters are able to combine all 3 mechanisms for certain cytokines. Cytosorb showed the best adsorption kinetics, while dialysis with polystyrene-based membranes offers the best biocompatibility because they do not show any unspecific adsorption of other plasma components.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          BPU
          Blood Purif
          10.1159/issn.0253-5068
          Blood Purification
          S. Karger AG
          0253-5068
          1421-9735
          2020
          February 2020
          11 September 2019
          : 49
          : 1-2
          : 33-43
          Affiliations
          aDepartment for Biomedical Research, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria
          bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
          Author notes
          *Stephan Harm, Department for Biomedical Research, Danube University Krems, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek Strasse 30, AT–3500 Krems (Austria), E-Mail stephan.harm@donau-uni.ac.at
          Article
          502680 Blood Purif 2020;49:33–43
          10.1159/000502680
          31509822
          © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 9, Tables: 3, Pages: 11
          Categories
          Research Article

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Adsorption, Cytokines, Cytosorb, Dialysis, Hemodiafiltration, Sepsis

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