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      Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Controlling canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. This study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in Spain for agents causing the following five CVBD: leishmaniosis ( Leishmania infantum: Li), heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis: Di), ehrlichiosis ( Ehrlichia canis: Ec), anaplasmosis ( Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys: An) and Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi: Bb).

          Methods

          Anti-An, -Bb, and -Ec antibodies and the Di antigen were determined using the 4DX SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) and anti- L. infantum (Li) antibodies using the Leishmania SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) in blood and/or serum samples.

          Results

          Among 1100 dogs examined, overall seropositivity rates were: Li (15.7%), Ec (5%), An (3.1%), Di (1.25%) and Bb (0.4%). While seropositivity towards Bb and Di was similar in all geographic regions, rates were significantly higher in the east of Spain (8.3%) for An, significantly higher in the north (20%) for Ec, and significantly higher in the Southeast (46.6%) and South (27.4%), and significantly lower in the north (0%) for Li.

          No statistical associations were observed between sex and the CVBD analyzed ( p ≥ 0.05) while the following associations with other variables were detected: a higher seropositivity to Ec (40%) and Bb (6.7%) in dogs under one year of age compared with adults ( p < 0.05); and a higher seropositivity to An and Li in dogs that lived outdoors versus indoors ( p = 0.01; p < 0.001, respectively). Seropositivity rates of 2.1%, 0%, 1.7%, 0.5% and 4.2% were recorded respectively for An, Bb, Ec, Di and Li in dogs with no clinical signs (n = 556) versus 3.8%, 0.6%, 7.5%, 1.8% and 25.9% for those with signs (n = 507) suggestive of a CVBD.

          Conclusion

          The data obtained indicate a risk for dogs in Spain of acquiring any of the five CVBD examined. Veterinarians in the different regions should include these diseases in their differential diagnoses and recommend the use of repellents and other prophylactic measures to prevent disease transmission by arthropod vectors. Public health authorities also need to become more involved in the problem, since some of the CVBD examined here also affect humans.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

          Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance) is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.
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            Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.

            Concerted action is needed to address public health issues raised by climate change. In this Review we discuss infections acquired through various routes (arthropod vector, rodent, water, food, and air) in view of a changing climate in Europe. Based on an extensive review of published work and expert workshops, we present an assessment of the infectious disease challenges: incidence, prevalence, and distribution are projected to shift in a changing environment. Due to the high level of uncertainty on the rate of climate change and its impact on infectious diseases, we propose to mount a proactive public health response by building an integrated network for environmental and epidemiological data. This network would have the capacity to connect epidemic intelligence and infectious disease surveillance with meteorological, entomological, water quality, remote sensing, and other data, for multivariate analyses and predictions. Insights from these analyses could then guide adaptation strategies and protect population health from impending threats related to climate change.
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              LeishVet guidelines for the practical management of canine leishmaniosis

              The LeishVet group has formed recommendations designed primarily to help the veterinary clinician in the management of canine leishmaniosis. The complexity of this zoonotic infection and the wide range of its clinical manifestations, from inapparent infection to severe disease, make the management of canine leishmaniosis challenging. The recommendations were constructed by combining a comprehensive review of evidence-based studies, extensive clinical experience and critical consensus opinion discussions. The guidelines presented here in a short version with graphical topic displays suggest standardized and rational approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, control and prevention of canine leishmaniosis. A staging system that divides the disease into four stages is aimed at assisting the clinician in determining the appropriate therapy, forecasting prognosis, and implementing follow-up steps required for the management of the leishmaniosis patient.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                1756-3305
                2013
                22 April 2013
                : 6
                : 117
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Animal Health, Veterinary Faculty, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
                [2 ]Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
                Article
                1756-3305-6-117
                10.1186/1756-3305-6-117
                3639099
                23607428
                Copyright ©2013 Miró et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Parasitology

                dog, leishmaniosis, heartworm, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, lyme disease

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