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      RET haplotype, not linked to the C620R activating mutation, associated with Hirschsprung disease in a novel MEN2 family

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          Abstract

          Hirschsprung disease is a congenital form of aganglionic megacolon that results from cristopathy. Hirschsprung disease usually occurs as a sporadic disease, although it may be associated with several inherited conditions, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. The rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is the major susceptibility gene for Hirschsprung disease, and germline mutations in RET have been reported in up to 50% of the inherited forms of Hirschsprung disease and in 15–20% of sporadic cases of Hirschsprung disease. The prevalence of Hirschsprung disease in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 cases was recently determined to be 7.5% and the co-occurrence of Hirschsprung disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 has been reported in at least 22 families so far. It was initially thought that Hirschsprung disease could be due to disturbances in apoptosis or due to a tendency of the mutated RET receptor to be retained in the Golgi apparatus. Presently, there is strong evidence favoring the hypothesis that specific inactivating haplotypes play a key role in the fetal development of congenital megacolon/Hirschsprung disease. In the present study, we report the genetic findings in a novel family with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: a specific RET haplotype was documented in patients with Hirschsprung disease associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma, but it was absent in patients with only medullary thyroid carcinoma. Despite the limited number of cases, the present data favor the hypothesis that specific haplotypes not linked to RET germline mutations are the genetic causes of Hirschsprung disease.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Hirschsprung disease, associated syndromes and genetics: a review.

          Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) represents the main genetic cause of functional intestinal obstruction with an incidence of 1/5000 live births. This developmental disorder is a neurocristopathy and is characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglia along a variable length of the intestine. In the last decades, the development of surgical approaches has importantly decreased mortality and morbidity which allowed the emergence of familial cases. Isolated HSCR appears to be a non-Mendelian malformation with low, sex-dependent penetrance, and variable expression according to the length of the aganglionic segment. While all Mendelian modes of inheritance have been described in syndromic HSCR, isolated HSCR stands as a model for genetic disorders with complex patterns of inheritance. The tyrosine kinase receptor RET is the major gene with both rare coding sequence mutations and/or a frequent variant located in an enhancer element predisposing to the disease. Hitherto, 10 genes and five loci have been found to be involved in HSCR development.
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            The relationship between specific RET proto-oncogene mutations and disease phenotype in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. International RET mutation consortium analysis.

            Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is an autosomal dominant disorder. The 3 recognized subtypes include MEN 2A, characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (pheo), and hyperparathyroidism (HPT); MEN 2B, by MTC, pheo, and characteristic stigmata; and familial MTC (FMTC), by the presence of MTC only. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between specific mutations and the presence of certain disease features in MEN 2 which could help in clinical decision making. Correlative survey study of 477 MEN 2 families. Eighteen tertiary referral centers worldwide. A total of 477 independent MEN 2 families. Association between the position and type of germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene and the presence or absence of MTC, pheo, HPT, and/or other features in a family. There is a statistically significant association between the presence of any mutation at a specific position (codon 634) and the presence of pheo and HPT. The presence of a specific mutation, CGC at codon 634, has yet to be associated with FMTC. Conversely, mutations at codons 768 and 804 are thus far seen only with FMTC, while codon 918 mutation is MEN 2B--specific. Rare families with both MEN 2 and Hirschsprung disease were found to have MEN 2-specific codon mutations. Patients with Hirschsprung disease presenting with such mutations should be monitored for the possible development of MEN 2 tumors. This consortium analysis suggests that genotype-phenotype correlations do exist and, if made reliably absolute, could prove useful in the future in clinical management with respect to screening, surveillance, and prophylaxis, as well as provide insight into the genetic effects of particular mutations.
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              Hirschsprung disease, associated syndromes, and genetics: a review.

               J. Amiel (2001)
              Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) is the main genetic cause of functional intestinal obstruction with an incidence of 1/5000 live births. This developmental disorder is a neurocristopathy and is characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglia along a variable length of the intestine. In the last decades, the development of surgical approaches has dramatically decreased mortality and morbidity, which has allowed the emergence of familial cases. HSCR appeared to be a multifactorial malformation with low, sex dependent penetrance and variable expression according to the length of the aganglionic segment, suggesting the involvement of one or more gene(s) with low penetrance. So far, eight genes have been found to be involved in HSCR. This frequent congenital malformation now stands as a model for genetic disorders with complex patterns of inheritance.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [I ]Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Division of Endocrinology, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.
                [II ]Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Division of Pediatric Surgery and Laboratory of Pediatric Surgery (LIM-30), São Paulo/SP, Brasil.
                Author notes

                Toledo RA designed and conceived the study, performed the experiments, conducted the analysis, and contributed to discussions. Toledo SPA designed and conceived the study, provided important input, supplied the clinical data, and contributed to discussions. Quedas EPS, VC Longuini, and Sekiya T performed the experiments, conducted the analysis and contributed to discussions. Coutinho FL and Tannuri U provided clinical data and contributed to discussions.

                Journal
                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Clinics (Sao Paulo)
                Clinics
                Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
                1807-5932
                1980-5322
                April 2012
                : 67
                : S1
                : 57-61
                3328835
                22584707
                10.6061/clinics/2012(Sup01)11
                cln_67p57
                Copyright © 2012 Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Counts
                Pages: 5
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                ret, haplotypes, hirschsprung, men2, hscr

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