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      Associations among the opioid receptor gene ( OPRM1) A118G polymorphism, psychiatric symptoms, and quantitative EEG in Korean males with gambling disorder: A pilot study


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          Background and aims

          A single nucleotide polymorphism of A118G (SNP; rs1799971) in the opioid receptor μ-1 ( OPRM1) gene is a missense variant that influences the affinity of μ-opioid receptors. This study aimed to investigate the associations among the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene, psychiatric symptoms, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) findings in patients with gambling disorder.


          Fifty-five male patients with gambling disorder aged between 18 and 65 years old participated in the study. The A118G polymorphism was genotyped into the AA, GA, and GG groups by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Resting-state qEEG was recorded with the eyes closed, and the absolute power of the delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), and beta (12–30 Hz) frequency bands was analyzed. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, impulsivity and severity of gambling, were assessed by a self-rating scale.


          There were no significant differences in psychiatric symptoms among the three genotype groups (AA, GA, and GG). However, the frequency band power of qEEG showed significant differences among the three genotype groups. The absolute power of the beta and theta bands in the frontal lobe was higher in G allele carriers.

          Discussion and conclusion

          Based on the findings of this study, the polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene might affect the neurophysiological process in patients with gambling disorder.

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          Most cited references51

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          Removing electroencephalographic artifacts by blind source separation.

          Eye movements, eye blinks, cardiac signals, muscle noise, and line noise present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) interpretation and analysis when rejecting contaminated EEG segments results in an unacceptable data loss. Many methods have been proposed to remove artifacts from EEG recordings, especially those arising from eye movements and blinks. Often regression in the time or frequency domain is performed on parallel EEG and electrooculographic (EOG) recordings to derive parameters characterizing the appearance and spread of EOG artifacts in the EEG channels. Because EEG and ocular activity mix bidirectionally, regressing out eye artifacts inevitably involves subtracting relevant EEG signals from each record as well. Regression methods become even more problematic when a good regressing channel is not available for each artifact source, as in the case of muscle artifacts. Use of principal component analysis (PCA) has been proposed to remove eye artifacts from multichannel EEG. However, PCA cannot completely separate eye artifacts from brain signals, especially when they have comparable amplitudes. Here, we propose a new and generally applicable method for removing a wide variety of artifacts from EEG records based on blind source separation by independent component analysis (ICA). Our results on EEG data collected from normal and autistic subjects show that ICA can effectively detect, separate, and remove contamination from a wide variety of artifactual sources in EEG records with results comparing favorably with those obtained using regression and PCA methods. ICA can also be used to analyze blink-related brain activity.
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            Introduction to behavioral addictions.

            Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.
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              Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the mu-opioid-receptor gene.

              Despite tremendous efforts in the search for safe, efficacious and non-addictive opioids for pain treatment, morphine remains the most valuable painkiller in contemporary medicine. Opioids exert their pharmacological actions through three opioid-receptor classes, mu, delta and kappa, whose genes have been cloned. Genetic approaches are now available to delineate the contribution of each receptor in opioid function in vivo. Here we disrupt the mu-opioid-receptor gene in mice by homologous recombination and find that there are no overt behavioural abnormalities or major compensatory changes within the opioid system in these animals. Investigation of the behavioural effects of morphine reveals that a lack of mu receptors abolishes the analgesic effect of morphine, as well as place-preference activity and physical dependence. We observed no behavioural responses related to delta- or kappa-receptor activation with morphine, although these receptors are present and bind opioid ligands. We conclude that the mu-opioid-receptor gene product is the molecular target of morphine in vivo and that it is a mandatory component of the opioid system for morphine action.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                25 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 8
                : 3
                : 463-470
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Dankook University Hospital , Cheonan, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Dankook University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, True Mind Mental Health Clinic, Korea Institute of Behavioral Addictions , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry, Korea Institute of Neuromodulation, Easybrain Center , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine , Daegu, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: Jaewon Lee, MD, PhD; Department of Psychiatry, Korea Institute of Neuromodulation, EasyBrain Center, 1330-9 Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Phone: +82 2 583 9081; Fax: +82 2 583 9082; E-mail: sonton21@ 123456gmail.com ; Jun Won Kim, MD, PhD; Department of Psychiatry, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, 33 Duryugongwon-ro 17-gil, Nam-Gu, Daegu 42472, Republic of Korea; Phone: +82 53 650 4332; Fax: +82 53 623 1694; E-mail: f_affection@ 123456naver.com
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 09 December 2018
                : 14 May 2019
                : 14 July 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 8
                Funding sources: This work was supported by a grant from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health and Welfare, South Korea (no. A120157).
                Full-Length Report

                gambling disorder,μ-opioid receptors,a118g polymorphism,quantitative electroencephalography


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