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      Diversity and altitudinal distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in Peregrina Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

      chrysomelidae, leaf beetles, species richness, abundance, altitude, northeast mexico

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          Abstract

          Abstract The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps) within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%), Eumolpinae (3.6%), Cryptocephalinae (2.2%), Chrysomelinae (2.2%), and finally Criocerinae (1.3%). The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%), Cryptocephalinae (9.7%), Eumolpinae (9.7%), Chrysomelinae (6.5%) and Criocerinae (5.2%). The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals), Centralaphthona diversa (Baly) (248), Margaridisa sp.1 (219), Acallepitrix sp.1 (134), Longitarsus sp.1 (104), Heterispa vinula (Erichson) (91), Epitrix sp.1 (84) and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72). Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance) and 52 were singletons (2.33%). The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site had distinct species assemblages of Chrysomelidae. The highest abundance was obtained during the late dry season, whereas diversity indices were highest during the early wet season. The present work represents the first report of the altitudinal variation in richness, abundance, and diversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico. These results highlight the importance of conservation of this heterogeneous habitat and establish baseline data for Chrysomelidae richness and diversity for the region.

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          Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs.

          The commonly observed high diversity of trees in tropical rain forests and corals on tropical reefs is a nonequilibrium state which, if not disturbed further, will progress toward a low-diversity equilibrium community. This may not happen if gradual changes in climate favor different species. If equilibrium is reached, a lesser degree of diversity may be sustained by niche diversification or by a compensatory mortality that favors inferior competitors. However, tropical forests and reefs are subject to severe disturbances often enough that equilibrium may never be attained.
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            A General Hypothesis of Species Diversity

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              Terrestrial insects along elevation gradients: species and community responses to altitude.

              The literature on the response of insect species to the changing environments experienced along altitudinal gradients is diverse and widely dispersed. There is a growing awareness that such responses may serve as analogues for climate warming effects occurring at a particular fixed altitude or latitude over time. This review seeks, therefore, to synthesise information on the responses of insects and allied groups to increasing altitude and provide a platform for future research. It focuses on those functional aspects of insect biology that show positive or negative reaction to altitudinal changes but avoids emphasising adaptation to high altitude per se. Reactions can be direct, with insect characteristics or performance responding to changing environmental parameters, or they can be indirect and mediated through the insect's interaction with other organisms. These organisms include the host plant in the case of herbivorous insects, and also competitor species, specific parasitoids, predators and pathogens. The manner in which these various factors individually and collectively influence the morphology, behaviour, ecophysiology, growth and development, survival, reproduction, and spatial distribution of insect species is considered in detail. Resultant patterns in the abundance of individual species populations and of community species richness are examined. Attempts are made throughout to provide mechanistic explanations of trends and to place each topic, where appropriate, into the broader theoretical context by appropriate reference to key literature. The paper concludes by considering how montane insect species will respond to climate warming.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25061357
                4109465
                10.3897/zookeys.417.7551
                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                Animal science & Zoology
                chrysomelidae,leaf beetles,species richness,abundance,altitude,northeast mexico

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