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      A Common Phenotype Associated with Atherogenesis in Diverse Mouse Models of Vascular Lipid Lesions

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          Abstract

          The introduction of a range of different genetic modifications in mice results in altered lipoprotein metabolism and the development of vascular lipid lesions. At present, however, it is unclear to what extent the molecular events underlying lipid lesion formation are similar in these different mouse models of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the protein expression pattern of lipid lesions from seven different mouse lines with varying susceptibility to vascular lipid lesion development, to determine to what extent lesions induced by different genetic interventions have a similar composition. The proteins we have measured, using quantitative immunofluorescence, are proteins whose expression is known to be modulated during atherogenesis in humans, including plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, osteopontin and the macrophage marker CD11b. In all the mice lines we have investigated, PAI-1 was elevated wherever lesions developed. Active TGF-β was depressed in the vessel wall of mice which developed lipid lesions, particularly in the intima. In contrast, TGF-β1 antigen (active plus latent TGF-β1) was increased at lesion sites. Accumulation of osteopontin and, with the marked exception of apolipoprotein(a) transgenic mice, tissue macrophages occurred at sites of lipid deposition in the vessel wall. Each lesion, irrespective of its size and the mouse strain in which it developed, had similar amounts of PAI-1, active TGF-β and osteopontin per unit area of lesion. These data are consistent with a common phenotype accompanying atherogenesis, irrespective of the genetic basis of susceptibility.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease.

          Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
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            Eta-1 (osteopontin): an early component of type-1 (cell-mediated) immunity.

            Cell-mediated (type-1) immunity is necessary for immune protection against most intracellular pathogens and, when excessive, can mediate organ-specific autoimmune destruction. Mice deficient in Eta-1 (also called osteopontin) gene expression have severely impaired type-1 immunity to viral infection [herpes simplex virus-type 1 (KOS strain)] and bacterial infection (Listeria monocytogenes) and do not develop sarcoid-type granulomas. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-gamma production is diminished, and IL-10 production is increased. A phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the amino-terminal portion of Eta-1 and its integrin receptor stimulated IL-12 expression, whereas a phosphorylation-independent interaction with CD44 inhibited IL-10 expression. These findings identify Eta-1 as a key cytokine that sets the stage for efficient type-1 immune responses through differential regulation of macrophage IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine expression.
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              Inhibition of early atherogenesis in transgenic mice by human apolipoprotein AI.

              Epidemiological surveys have identified a strong inverse relationship between the amount in the plasma of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein AI (ApoA-I), the major protein component of HDL, and the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. It is not known if this relationship arises from a direct antiatherogenic effect of these plasma components or if it is the result of other factors also associated with increases in ApoA-I and HDL levels. Because some strains of mice are susceptible to diet-induced formation of preatherosclerotic fatty streak lesions, and because of available techniques for the genetic manipulation of this organism, the murine system offers a unique setting in which to investigate the process of early atherogenesis. To test the hypothesis that induction of a high plasma concentration of ApoA-I and HDL would inhibit this process, we studied the effects of atherogenic diets on transgenic mice expressing high amounts of human ApoA-I. We report that transgenic mice with high plasma ApoA-I and HDL levels were significantly protected from the development of fatty streak lesions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2001
                June 2001
                25 May 2001
                : 38
                : 3
                : 256-265
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; bLife Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., USA; cDepartment of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                51054 J Vasc Res 2001;38:256–265
                10.1159/000051054
                11399898
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 53, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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