Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates
of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry
populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle
glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number
of affected people in 2020 and 2040.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Data from 50 population-based studies (3770 POAG cases among 140,496 examined individuals
and 786 PACG cases among 112 398 examined individuals).
We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science for population-based studies of glaucoma
prevalence published up to March 25, 2013. Hierarchical Bayesian approach was used
to estimate the pooled glaucoma prevalence of the population aged 40-80 years along
with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Projections of glaucoma were estimated based on
the United Nations World Population Prospects. Bayesian meta-regression models were
performed to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and the relevant
Prevalence and projection numbers of glaucoma cases.
The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40-80 years is 3.54% (95% CrI,
2.09-5.82). The prevalence of POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%; 95% CrI, 2.08-7.35),
and the prevalence of PACG is highest in Asia (1.09%; 95% CrI, 0.43-2.32). In 2013,
the number of people (aged 40-80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be
64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040. In the
Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds
ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23-1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation
type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely
to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83-4.06), and
people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas
(OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19-2.04).
The number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040,
disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. These estimates are
important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and related public
Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All