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      CD31 Expression on Leukocytes Is Downregulated in vivo during Hemodialysis

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          Background/Aim: CD31 on leukocytes is the adhesion molecule involved in the leukocyte extravasation in inflammatory conditions. During hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes, it is considered that activated leukocytes adhere to endothelium, but do not show extravasation. However, it is not elucidated why activated leukocytes do not show endothelial transmigration during hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes. Methods: In the present study, changes in the expressions of Mac-1 and CD31 on granulocytes and monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry during hemodialysis in 7 patients treated with regenerated-cellulose (RC) membranes and next with polysulfone (PS) membranes. Results: During dialysis with RC, Mac-1 expressions on granulocytes and monocytes both significantly increased as compared with predialysis values and across the dialyzer. During dialysis with RC, the CD31 expression on granulocytes and monocytes significantly decreased as compared with predialysis values. During dialysis with PS, changes in Mac-1 and CD31 expressions on granulocytes and monocytes were smaller than those during dialysis with RC. Conclusions: Decreased CD31 expression on leukocytes may affect leukocyte function more in patients chronically hemodialyzed with RC than in those hemodialyzed with PS, since CD31 is important in leukocyte transendothelial migration in inflammatory conditions.

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          CD31 expressed on distinctive T cell subsets is a preferential amplifier of beta 1 integrin-mediated adhesion

           Kevin Horgan (1992)
          The CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 [PECAM- 1]/endothelial cell adhesion molecule [endoCAM]) molecule expressed on leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells is postulated to mediate adhesion to endothelial cells and thereby function in immunity, inflammation, and wound healing. We report the following novel features of CD31 which suggests a role for it in adhesion amplification of unique T cell subsets: (a) engagement of CD31 induces the adhesive function of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins; (b) adhesion induction by CD31 immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is sensitive, requiring only bivalent mAb; (c) CD31 mAb induces adhesion rapidly, but it is transient; (d) unique subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells express CD31, including all naive (CD45RA+) CD8 T cells; and (e) CD31 induction is selective, inducing adhesive function of beta 1 integrins, particularly very late antigen-4, more efficiently than the beta 2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Conversely, CD3 is more effective in inducing beta 2-mediated adhesion. Taken together, these findings indicate that unique T cell subsets express CD31, and CD31 has the capacity to induce integrin-mediated adhesion of T cells in a sensitive and selective fashion. We propose that, in collaboration with other receptors/ligands, CD31 functions in an "adhesion cascade" by amplifying integrin-mediated adhesion of CD31+ T cells to other cells, particularly endothelial cells.
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            ELISA for quantitation of L-selectin shed from leukocytes in vivo.

            L-selectin is a cell surface receptor on granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes that is responsible for the initial attachment of leukocytes to endothelium. The extracellular domain of L-selectin is proteolytically shed from leukocytes following cellular activation in vitro. The shed form of L-selectin (SL-selectin) is functionally active and at high concentrations can inhibit leukocyte attachment to endothelium. Therefore, an ELISA was developed to quantitate the levels of SL-selectin in biological fluids, biopsy specimens and during recombinant protein production. This simple, quantitative sandwich ELISA uses two monoclonal antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of SL-selectin. The assay has a detection range of 5-1300 ng/ml, is precise and sensitive. The ability of this assay to detect SL-selectin in serum, plasma, and culture supernatant fluid was demonstrated and it was used to quantitate circulating SL-selectin in normal and patient sera. Patients with sepsis and HIV infection showed markedly elevated SL-selectin levels in serum. Thus, the ELISA should prove useful both for laboratory purposes as well as in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with inflammatory diseases.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              05 September 2001
              : 89
              : 2
              : 153-160
              Department of Internal Medicine, Daiko Medical Center, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
              46062 Nephron 2001;89:153–160
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 5, References: 38, Pages: 8
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              Original Paper

              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

              Mac-1, CD31, Hemodialysis, Extravasation, Leukocytopenia


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