The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the tightest endothelial barrier in humans. Characterized by the presence of tight endothelial junctions and adherens junctions, the primary function of the BBB is to maintain brain homeostasis through the control of solute transit across the barrier. The specific features of this barrier make for unique modes of transport of solutes, nanoparticles, and cells across the BBB. Understanding the different routes of traffic adopted by each of these is therefore critical in the development of targeted therapies. In an attempt to move towards controlled experimental assays, multiple groups are now opting for the use of microfluidic systems. A comprehensive understanding of bio-transport processes across the BBB in microfluidic devices is therefore necessary to develop targeted and efficient therapies for a host of diseases ranging from neurological disorders to the spread of metastases in the brain.