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      Associations between symptoms of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use: An item-level exploratory graph analysis perspective

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Studies have demonstrated associations between both problematic smartphone and social networks use with everyday life adversities. However, examination of associations between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and problematic use of specific social networking platforms, especially on item-level data, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore how items of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use are associated.

          Methods

          949 German-speaking adults participated in a web survey study. The participants were queried about their socio-demographics as well as levels of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use. In addition to bivariate correlation analysis, exploratory graph analysis (EGA), a type of network analysis, was conducted.

          Results

          The results showed that while problematic Facebook and Instagram use seem to be distinct phenomena, problematic smartphone and WhatsApp use were heavily intertwined. Furthermore, the only cross-platform symptom observed was the extent of reported pain in wrists and neck due to digital technology use. The EGA network models showed very good stability in bootstrap analyses.

          Discussion and conclusions

          In general, the results of this study suggest that while Instagram and Facebook use may potentially constitute distinct problematic behaviors, problematic smartphone/WhatsApp use scales may be measuring highly similar or even the same construct.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          2006
          Journal of Behavioral Addictions
          J Behav Addict
          Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
          2062-5871
          2063-5303
          13 August 2020
          Affiliations
          [1 ] deptDepartment of Molecular Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education , Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
          [2 ] deptInstitute of Mathematics and Statistics , University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
          [3 ] deptDepartment of Psychology , University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
          [4 ] deptDepartment of Psychiatry , University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
          [5 ] deptDepartment of Psychology , University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
          Author notes
          [* ]Corresponding author. dmroz@ 123456ut.ee
          Article
          10.1556/2006.2020.00036
          © 2020 The Author(s)

          Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

          Page count
          Figures: 01, Tables: 04, References: 85, Pages: 12
          Product
          Self URI (journal page): https://akademiai.com/loi/2006
          Categories
          Full-length Report

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