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Modeling the two- and three-dimensional displacement field in Lorca, Spain, subsidence and the global implications

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      Abstract

      Land subsidence associated with overexploitation of aquifers is a hazard that commonly affects large areas worldwide. The Lorca area, located in southeast Spain, has undergone one of the highest subsidence rates in Europe as a direct consequence of long-term aquifer exploitation. Previous studies carried out on the region assumed that the ground deformation retrieved from satellite radar interferometry corresponds only to vertical displacement. Here we report, for the first time, the two- and three-dimensional displacement field over the study area using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A images and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations. By modeling this displacement, we provide new insights on the spatial and temporal evolution of the subsidence processes and on the main governing mechanisms. Additionally, we also demonstrate the importance of knowing both the vertical and horizontal components of the displacement to properly characterize similar hazards. Based on these results, we propose some general guidelines for the sustainable management and monitoring of land subsidence related to anthropogenic activities.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC, UCM), Calle del Doctor Severo Ochoa, no 7, Facultad de Medicina (Edificio Entrepabellones 7 y 8, 4a planta), Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 2978, GRID grid.5690.a, ETSI Topografía, Geodesia y Cartografía, , Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ; Ctra. Valencia km 7, 28031 Madrid, Spain
            [3 ]ISNI 0000000101969356, GRID grid.28020.38, Dpto de Química y Física, , Universidad de Almería, ; Edificio CITE-IIA, Cañada de San Urbano s/n, 04120 Almería, Spain
            [4 ]ISNI 0000000096214564, GRID grid.266190.a, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), 216UCB, , University of Colorado at Boulder, ; Boulder, CO 80309 USA
            [5 ]Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, 95125 Catania, Italy
            [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 2978, GRID grid.5690.a, Dpto. Ingeniería Agroforestal, ETSI Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, , Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ; Avda. Puerta de Hierro, no 2 – 4, 28040 Madrid, Spain
            [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 7667, GRID grid.4795.f, Dpto. Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Unidad Departamental Astronomía y Geodesia, , Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ; Fac. C. Matemáticas, Plaza de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain
            [8 ]GRID grid.6835.8, CommSensLab, Dep. Signal Theory and Communications, , Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), ; D3-Campus Nord-UPC, C. Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5745-3527, jft@mat.ucm.es
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            3 October 2018
            3 October 2018
            2018
            : 8
            30283152
            6170491
            33128
            10.1038/s41598-018-33128-0
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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