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      Associations of home confinement during COVID-19 lockdown with subsequent health and well-being among UK adults


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          During the COVID-19 pandemic, the United Kingdom (UK) government introduced public health safety measures to mitigate the spikes in infection rates. This included stay-at-home orders that prevented people from leaving their homes for work or study, except for urgent medical care or buying essential items. This practice could have both short and long-term implications for health and wellbeing of people in the UK. Using longitudinal data of 10,630 UK adults, this study prospectively examined the association between home confinement status during the stringent lockdown in the UK (March 23-May 13, 2020) and 20 indicators of subjective well-being, social well-being, pro-social/altruistic behaviors, psychological distress, and health behaviors assessed approximately one month after the stringent lockdown ended. All analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and social isolation status in the beginning of the pandemic. Home confinement during the lockdown was associated with greater subsequent compliance with COVID-19 rules, more perceived major stressors, and a lower prevalence of physical activity. There was modest evidence of associations with lower life satisfaction, greater loneliness, greater depressive symptoms, greater anxiety symptoms, and more perceived minor stressors post-lockdown. However, there was little evidence that home confinement was associated with other indices of subsequent health and well-being. While our study shows that home confinement impacts some indices of subsequent health and wellbeing outcomes even after lockdown, the degree of the psychological adaptation to the difficult confinement behavior remains unclear and should be further studied.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03001-5.

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          Most cited references30

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              Sensitivity analysis is useful in assessing how robust an association is to potential unmeasured or uncontrolled confounding. This article introduces a new measure called the "E-value," which is related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that are potentially subject to confounding. The E-value is defined as the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the treatment and the outcome to fully explain away a specific treatment-outcome association, conditional on the measured covariates. A large E-value implies that considerable unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. A small E-value implies little unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. The authors propose that in all observational studies intended to produce evidence for causality, the E-value be reported or some other sensitivity analysis be used. They suggest calculating the E-value for both the observed association estimate (after adjustments for measured confounders) and the limit of the confidence interval closest to the null. If this were to become standard practice, the ability of the scientific community to assess evidence from observational studies would improve considerably, and ultimately, science would be strengthened.

                Author and article information

                Curr Psychol
                Curr Psychol
                Current Psychology (New Brunswick, N.j.)
                Springer US (New York )
                15 March 2022
                15 March 2022
                : 1-10
                [1 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Department of Epidemiology, , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, ; Boston, MA USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Human Flourishing Program, Institute for Quantitative Social Science, , Harvard University, ; Cambridge, MA USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.412672.4, ISNI 0000 0000 9008 6311, School of Psychology and Counselling, , College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, Regent University, ; Virginia Beach, VA USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Department of Biostatistics, , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, ; Boston, MA USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.83440.3b, ISNI 0000000121901201, Department of Behavioural Science and Health, , University College London, ; London, UK
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 9 March 2022

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                covid-19,home confinement,well-being,mental health,outcome-wide epidemiology,uk


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