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      Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India Translated title: Activité antiparasitaire chez les Asteraceae avec une attention particulière pour l’utilisation ethnobotanique par les tribus d’Odisha en Inde

      1 , 2 , * , 2

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Asteraceae, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Odisha (India), antiparasitic drugs

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

          Translated abstract

          Le but de cette revue est d’étudier les plantes antiparasitaires de la famille des Asteraceae et leur applicabilité dans le traitement des parasites. Cette revue est divisée en trois parties principales: (a) littérature sur les utilisations traditionnelles des Asteraceae pour le traitement des parasites; (b) description des principales classes de composés chimiques des Asteraceae et leurs effets antiparasitaires; (c) activité antiparasitaire avec référence spéciale aux flavonoïdes et aux terpénoïdes. Cette revue fournit des informations détaillées sur les extraits d’Asteraceae rapportés à travers le monde et sur des métabolites secondaires isolés qui peuvent inhiber les parasites protozoaires, tels que Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania et les vers intestinaux. En outre, une attention particulière est accordée aux Asteraceae d’Odisha (Inde), utilisées par les tribus locales comme antiparasitaires. Ces plantes sont comparées aux mêmes espèces utilisées traditionnellement dans d’autres régions. Enfin, nous fournissons des informations sur les plantes identifiées à Odisha et les composés qui seraient prometteurs en tant que médicaments candidats contre les maladies parasitaires. Pour la plupart des plantes discutées dans cette revue, les composés actifs doivent encore être isolés et testés plus avant.

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          Most cited references 140

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          Opportunities and challenges in antiparasitic drug discovery.

          New antiparasitic drugs are urgently needed to treat and control diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness and filariasis, which affect millions of people each year. However, because the majority of those infected live in countries in which the prospects of any financial return on investment are too low to support market-driven drug discovery and development, alternative approaches are needed. In this article, challenges and opportunities for antiparasitic drug discovery are considered, highlighting some of the progress that has been made in recent years, partly through scientific advances, but also by more effective partnership between the public and private sectors.
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            Antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities of flavonoids and their analogues: in vitro, in vivo, structure-activity relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies.

            Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are important parasitic diseases affecting millions of people in Africa, Asia, and South America. In a previous study, we identified several flavonoid glycosides as antiprotozoal principles from a Turkish plant. Here we surveyed a large set of flavonoid aglycones and glycosides, as well as a panel of other related compounds of phenolic and phenylpropanoid nature, for their in vitro activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani. The cytotoxicities of more than 100 compounds for mammalian L6 cells were also assessed and compared to their antiparasitic activities. Several compounds were investigated in vivo for their antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal efficacies in mouse models. Overall, the best in vitro trypanocidal activity for T. brucei rhodesiense was exerted by 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68 ng/ml), followed by 3-hydroxyflavone, rhamnetin, and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (IC50s, 0.5 microg/ml) and catechol (IC50, 0.8 microg/ml). The activity against T. cruzi was moderate, and only chrysin dimethylether and 3-hydroxydaidzein had IC50s less than 5.0 microg/ml. The majority of the metabolites tested possessed remarkable leishmanicidal potential. Fisetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, luteolin, and quercetin were the most potent, giving IC50s of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone and quercetin appeared to ameliorate parasitic infections in mouse models. Generally, the test compounds lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. By screening a large number of flavonoids and analogues, we were able to establish some general trends with respect to the structure-activity relationship, but it was not possible to draw clear and detailed quantitative structure-activity relationships for any of the bioactivities by two different approaches. However, our results can help in directing the rational design of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and quercetin derivatives as potent and effective antiprotozoal agents.
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              Clustered patterns of species origins of nature-derived drugs and clues for future bioprospecting.

               F. Zhu,  C. Qin,  L Tao (2011)
              Many drugs are nature derived. Low drug productivity has renewed interest in natural products as drug-discovery sources. Nature-derived drugs are composed of dozens of molecular scaffolds generated by specific secondary-metabolite gene clusters in selected species. It can be hypothesized that drug-like structures probably are distributed in selective groups of species. We compared the species origins of 939 approved and 369 clinical-trial drugs with those of 119 preclinical drugs and 19,721 bioactive natural products. In contrast to the scattered distribution of bioactive natural products, these drugs are clustered into 144 of the 6,763 known species families in nature, with 80% of the approved drugs and 67% of the clinical-trial drugs concentrated in 17 and 30 drug-prolific families, respectively. Four lines of evidence from historical drug data, 13,548 marine natural products, 767 medicinal plants, and 19,721 bioactive natural products suggest that drugs are derived mostly from preexisting drug-productive families. Drug-productive clusters expand slowly by conventional technologies. The lack of drugs outside drug-productive families is not necessarily the result of under-exploration or late exploration by conventional technologies. New technologies that explore cryptic gene clusters, pathways, interspecies crosstalk, and high-throughput fermentation enable the discovery of novel natural products. The potential impact of these technologies on drug productivity and on the distribution patterns of drug-productive families is yet to be revealed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                12 March 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, North Orissa University, Baripada- 757003 India
                [2 ] Department of Biology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven Belgium
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite170135 10.1051/parasite/2018008
                10.1051/parasite/2018008
                5847338
                29528842
                © S.K. Panda and W. Luyten, published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 166, Pages: 25
                Categories
                Review Article

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