Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Urea Reduction Ratio and Urea Kinetic Modeling: A Mathematical Analysis of Changing Dialysis Parameters

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Based mainly on the simplicity of its calculation, the urea reduction ratio (URR) has been suggested as an alternative to urea kinetic modeling (Kt/V) as a measure of hemodialysis adequacy. However, recent studies have raised questions concerning the accuracy of URR, particularly in the presence of residual kidney function (KrU). This study was initiated to evaluate the relationship between URR and Kt/V under a variety of dialysis conditions. Equations based on the variable-volume, single-pool model described by Gotch were used to construct a model incorporating the variables used in the estimation of URR and Kt/V. The model’s prediction of URR correlated closely with measured URR in 30 patients (r = 0.9987, p < 0.000001). This analytic approach showed that changes in each of several dialysis parameters caused divergence in the values of URR and Kt/V. The model showed that URR could be less than 0.65, while total Kt/V was greater than 1.2, whether or not KrU was present. In fact, when KrU was greater than 1.0, URR could be less than 0.65, while Kt/V might be 2.0 or higher. On the other hand, the model showed instances where URR could be greater than 0.65, when Kt/V was less than 1.2. This occurred only when KrU was less than 1.0. To determine the prevalence of these anomalies in clinical practice, 767 kinetic modeling determinations were evaluated in 207 patients. One of the above discrepancies was observed at least once in 30.9% of the patients, representing 12.1% of all determinations. In addition, it was found that omitting KrU from the calculation of Kt/V generally leads to a Kt/V <1.2. This, when associated with a URR <0.65, could erroneously imply inadequate dialysis. The patient data are consistent with the view that URR and Kt/V are the net result of several variables that may act together or even in opposing directions. Based on this mathematical model and the observed clinical data, the use of URR alone to assess dialysis adequacy, or neglecting the contribution of KrU to Kt/V, may lead to changes in the dialysis prescription that are neither correct nor necessary.

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          1998
          December 1998
          09 December 1998
          : 18
          : 6
          : 471-477
          Affiliations
          Departments of a Internal Medicine and b Pathology, St. Elizabeth Medical Health Center, Youngstown State University, c Department of Mathematics, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, d Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, e Nursing Department, Forum Health Care, Youngstown, Ohio, USA
          Article
          13390 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:471–477
          10.1159/000013390
          9845819
          © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 17, Pages: 7
          Product
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13390
          Categories
          Clinical Study

          Comments

          Comment on this article