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      Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Human Health and Diseases

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          Abstract

          The pharmaceutical effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as dietary nutrients on human health and diseases have gained much attention and are investigated for decades. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) are the three major n-3 PUFAs enriched in marine organisms, such as fish, shrimp, algae, and so on. It has been well known that n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA and EPA, are beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 PUFAs might cure inflammatory diseases through several mechanisms, such as plasma membrane remodeling of lymphocytes, down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and alternating adhesion molecule expressions. Several molecular targets of n-3 PUFAs on immune-regulation have also been identified, such as GPR120 (FFA4), protein kinase C (PKC), and PPAR-γ. However, it remains inconclusive if dietary n-3 PUFAs function the same both in vitro and in vivo based on cohort studies. This review will focus on the molecular targets and mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of n-3 PUFAs on human health and diseases, such as obesity, tumor, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases..

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JOUC
          Journal of Ocean University of China
          Science Press and Springer (China )
          1672-5182
          07 May 2019
          01 April 2019
          : 18
          : 2
          : 481-492
          Affiliations
          1 The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Translational Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310000, China
          2 Institute of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding authors: MIN Junxia and ZHANG Lijuan
          Article
          s11802-019-3620-4
          10.1007/s11802-019-3620-4
          Copyright © Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2019.

          The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is hereby assigned for good and valuable consideration to the editorial office of Journal of Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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          Self URI (journal-page): https://www.springer.com/journal/11802

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