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      Effects of different priming doses of propofol on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction: A preliminary randomized controlled study

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          Fentanyl-induced cough is not an uncommon condition during the induction of general anesthesia. A preliminary randomized controlled study was designed to observe the effects of different priming doses of propofol on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. A total of 120 patients were randomized into 4 groups ( n = 30) to receive the intravenous injection of intralipid (group I), propofol 1 mg·kg -1 (group II), propofol 1.5 mg·kg -1 (group III), or propofol 2 mg·kg -1 (group IV) 1 minute before a bolus of fentanyl 2.5 µg·kg -1. The occurrence and severity of cough were recorded for 2 minutes after fentanyl bolus. The severity of cough was graded as none (grade 0), mild (grade 1–2), moderate (grade 3–4), or severe (grade 5 or more). The average bolus time of fentanyl was 1.5 ± 0.3 seconds in the present study. The incidence of fentanyl-induced cough was 80.0% in group I, 40.0% in group II, 6.7% in group III, and 3.3% in group IV, respectively. Groups II, III, and IV had a lower incidence and less severity of cough than group I ( P < 0.05). Groups III and IV had a lower incidence and less severity of cough than group II ( P < 0.05). In summary, a priming dose of more than 1 mg·kg -1 of propofol is effective to suppress fentanyl-induced cough in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest using a priming dose of propofol 1.5 mg·kg -1 to suppress cough during the anesthesia induction with propofol and fentanyl in clinical practice.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate suppress coughing induced by iv fentanyl.

          Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, is a popular choice amongst anesthesiologists in the operating room. Preinduction iv fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28-45% of patients. Coughing due to fentanyl is not always benign and at times may be explosive requiring immediate intervention. We have studied the role of aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone and sodium chromoglycate in preventing fentanyl induced coughing and have compared their efficacy. Two hundred patients aged 18-60 yr, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into four groups of 50 each. Group I served as control, while Groups II, III and IV received an aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate 15 min prior to entering the operating room. Following iv fentanyl (2 micro g x kg(-1)) the incidence of cough was recorded and graded as mild (1-2), moderate (3-5) and severe (> 5) depending on the number of coughs observed. Results were analyzed using 'z' and Fischer's Exact test. A P value of /= 0.05). The use of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate aerosol 15 min prior to iv fentanyl administration minimizes fentanyl-induced coughing.
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            Intravenous lidocaine and ephedrine, but not propofol, suppress fentanyl-induced cough.

            The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lidocaine, propofol and ephedrine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough. One hundred and eighteen patients were randomly assigned into four groups and the following medications were given intravenously: patients in Group I (n = 31) received normal saline 2 mL, Group II (n = 29) received lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1), Group III (n = 30) received propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1) and Group IV (n = 28) received ephedrine 5 mg. At one minute after the study medication, fentanyl 2.5 microg.kg(-1) was given intravenously within two seconds. The occurrence of cough and vital sign profiles were recorded within two minutes after fentanyl bolus by an anesthesiologist blinded to study design. Sixty-five percent of patients in the placebo group had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in Groups II (14%) and IV (21%). Although a numerically lower frequency of cough was noted in Group III (37%), it was not statistically different from that of the placebo group. SpO(2) decreased significantly in patients of Group III compared to placebo; one patient experienced hypoxemia necessitating mask ventilation. Patients in Group III showed a decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure (2 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). Patients in Group IV showed an increase in both measurements (5 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). No truncal rigidity was observed throughout the study. Intravenous lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1) or ephedrine 5 mg, but not propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1), was effective in preventing fentanyl-induced cough. The results provide a convenient method to decrease fentanyl-induced cough.
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              Prolonged injection time and light smoking decrease the incidence of fentanyl-induced cough.

              We designed this study to evaluate the effect of injection time and smoking on fentanyl-induced cough. Four-hundred-fifty ASA class I-II patients, aged 18-80 yr and weighing 40-90 kg, scheduled for elective surgery were included. All patients received fentanyl (100 microg for patients weighing 40-69 kg and 150 microg for patients weighing 70-90 kg for clinical convenience) via the proximal port of a peripheral IV line on the forearm. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 150 patients each. Patients in Group I received fentanyl injection over 2 s, whereas for patients in Groups II and III the fentanyl was injected at a constant rate over 15 s and 30 s, respectively. We recorded the number of coughs of each patient during and 30 s after fentanyl injection. The incidence of cough was 18% in group I, 8% in Group II, and 1.3% in Group III, significantly less (P < 0.05) with a longer injection time. Current smokers had a less frequent incidence of cough than nonsmokers; however, this effect was only significant in light smokers (<10 cigarettes per day or <10 smoking years or <10 pack-years). In conclusion, a longer injection time reduces the incidence of fentanyl-induced cough, and light smoking may be a protective factor against fentanyl-induced cough.

                Author and article information

                Ups J Med Sci
                Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
                Informa Healthcare
                May 2010
                07 April 2010
                : 115
                : 2
                : 121-124
                1Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou P. R. China
                2Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing P. R. China
                3Department of Anesthesiology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing P. R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhongyun Wang, Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Guangzhou Road 300, Nanjing 210029, P. R. China. WXCXP@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                © Upsala Medical Society

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited.

                Original Article


                propofol, cough, dose, anesthesia, fentanyl


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