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      Sensitive Superoxide Detection in Vascular Cells by the New Chemiluminescence Dye L-012

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          Abstract

          The detection superoxide production in vascular cells is usually limited by a low sensitivity of available assays. We tested the applicability of the luminol derivate L-012 [8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyridol[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4(2H,3H)dione] to measure superoxide production in cultured endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and rat aortic segments. Following stimulation with the protein kinase stimulator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 μ M) there was an 2.8-fold increase of L-012 chemiluminescence, whereas incubation with angiotensin II (100 n M) did not result in a measurable increase. Addition of vanadate (100 μ M) considerably increased the chemiluminescence (up to 17-fold) after PMA and made possible the detection of an enhanced superoxide production after stimulation with angiotensin II (by 1.7-fold). This was due to a ∼9-fold increase in signal intensity of L-012 in the presence of vanadate. Prolonged incubation with vanadate also led to a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent increase in superoxide formation which was predominantly produced by an NAD(P)H oxidase. Short-term vanadate-enhanced L-012 chemiluminescence represents a highly sensitive assay making it possible to detect small changes of superoxide formation in intact vascular cells.

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          Most cited references 5

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          NADH oxidase activity of human xanthine oxidoreductase--generation of superoxide anion.

          Human xanthine oxidase was purified from breast milk. The dehydrogenase form of the enzyme, which predominates in most mammalian tissues, catalyses the oxidation of NADH by oxygen, generating superoxide anion significantly faster than does the oxidase form. The corresponding forms of bovine enzyme behave very similarly. The steady-state kinetics of NADH oxidation and superoxide production, including inhibition by NAD, by the dehydrogenase forms of both enzymes, are analysed in terms of a model involving two-stage recycling of oxidised enzyme. Established inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductases (allopurinol oxypurinol, amflutizole and BOF 4272), which block all other reducing substrates, were ineffective in the case of NADH. Diphenyleneiodonium, on the other hand, was a powerful inhibitor of NADH oxidation. The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species arising from NADH oxidation by xanthine oxidoreductase in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and other disease states, as well as in normal signal transduction, is discusssed.
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            A new sensitive chemiluminescence probe, L-012, for measuring the production of superoxide anion by cells.

            A sensitive chemiluminescence method for measuring the production of superoxide anion (O2-) by activated EoL-1 cells (human eosinophilic leukemia cell line) is described. Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing a new chemiluminescence probe, 8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4(2H,3H)dione (L-012). In the presence of L-012, activated EoL-1 cells which produce reactive oxygen species generated a marked chemiluminescence with negligible background. The L-012-dependent chemiluminescence was completely abolished by 100-300 U/ml superoxide dismutase, indicating that the main reactive oxygen species detected in this reaction was O2-. The light intensity and the sensitivity of L-012 to O2- were higher than those of other chemiluminescence probes such as luminol and Cypridina luciferin analog (MCLA). Thus, L-012 would provide an improved chemiluminescence method for measuring O2- from cells.
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              Vanadate-stimulated oxidation of NAD(P)H

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1999
                December 1999
                24 December 1999
                : 36
                : 6
                : 456-464
                Affiliations
                aInstitute of Physiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, and bHoechst Marion Roussel, Hoechst AG, Frankfurt, Germany
                Article
                25688 J Vasc Res 1999;36:456–464
                10.1159/000025688
                10629421
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 23, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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