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      “After the Dust Settles”: Foucauldian Narratives of Retired Athletes' “Re-orientation” to Exercise

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          Abstract

          One aspect of sports retirement that has been overlooked until recently is the manner in which retired athletes relate to, and seek to redefine, the meaning of exercise in their post-sport lives. In this article, three Foucauldian scholars present and analyze a series of vignettes concerning their own sense-making and meaning-making about exercise following their long-term involvement in high-performance soccer (authors one and two) and distance running (author three). In doing so, this paper aims to underline the problematic legacy of high-performance sport for retiring athletes' relationship to movement and exercise, and to highlight how social theory, and Foucauldian theorization in particular, can serve to open new spaces and possibilities for thinking about sports retirement.

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          The Subject and Power

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            Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players.

            To analyze neurodegenerative causes of death, specifically Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among a cohort of professional football players. This was a cohort mortality study of 3,439 National Football League players with at least 5 pension-credited playing seasons from 1959 to 1988. Vital status was ascertained through 2007. For analysis purposes, players were placed into 2 strata based on characteristics of position played: nonspeed players (linemen) and speed players (all other positions except punter/kicker). External comparisons with the US population used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs); internal comparisons between speed and nonspeed player positions used standardized rate ratios (SRRs). Overall player mortality compared with that of the US population was reduced (SMR 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.59). Neurodegenerative mortality was increased using both underlying cause of death rate files (SMR 2.83, 95% CI 1.36-5.21) and multiple cause of death (MCOD) rate files (SMR 3.26, 95% CI 1.90-5.22). Of the neurodegenerative causes, results were elevated (using MCOD rates) for both ALS (SMR 4.31, 95% CI 1.73-8.87) and AD (SMR 3.86, 95% CI 1.55-7.95). In internal analysis (using MCOD rates), higher neurodegenerative mortality was observed among players in speed positions compared with players in nonspeed positions (SRR 3.29, 95% CI 0.92-11.7). The neurodegenerative mortality of this cohort is 3 times higher than that of the general US population; that for 2 of the major neurodegenerative subcategories, AD and ALS, is 4 times higher. These results are consistent with recent studies that suggest an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease among football players.
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              Discipline and Punish : The Birth of the Prison

              <b>A brilliant work from the most influential philosopher since Sartre.</b> <br><br>In this indispensable work, a brilliant thinker suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Sports Act Living
                Front Sports Act Living
                Front. Sports Act. Living
                Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2624-9367
                08 July 2022
                2022
                : 4
                : 901308
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Sport Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull , Hull, United Kingdom
                [2] 2Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University , Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
                [3] 3Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Eleanor Peters, Edge Hill University, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Natalie Barker-Ruchti, Örebro University, Sweden; Göran Gerdin, Linnaeus University, Sweden

                *Correspondence: Luke Jones l.k.jones@ 123456hull.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to The History, Culture and Sociology of Sports, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sports and Active Living

                Article
                10.3389/fspor.2022.901308
                9304547
                35873214
                7da88e0f-4c04-4381-8ec2-b0c106fc0fa2
                Copyright © 2022 Jones, Avner and Denison.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 21 March 2022
                : 13 June 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 83, Pages: 11, Words: 9999
                Categories
                Sports and Active Living
                Review

                foucault,sports retirement,exercise,movement,ethical movement practices

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