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      Ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp diversity and discovery of new taxa in Dicymbe monodominant forests of the Guiana Shield

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          The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box.

          Molecular tools have now been applied for the past 5 years to dissect ectomycorrhizal (EM) community structure, and they have propelled a resurgence in interest in the field. Results from these studies have revealed that: (i) EM communities are impressively diverse and are patchily distributed at a fine scale below ground; (ii) there is a poor correspondence between fungi that appear dominant as sporocarps vs. those that appear dominant on roots; (iii) members of Russulaceae, Thelephoraceae, and/or non-thelephoroid resupinates are among the most abundant EM taxa in ecosystems sampled to date; (iv) dissimilar plants are associated with many of the same EM species when their roots intermingle--this occurs on a small enough spatial scale that fungal individuals are likely to be shared by dissimilar plants; and (v) mycoheterotrophic plants have highly specific fungal associations. Although, these results have been impressive, they have been tempered by sampling difficulties and limited by the taxonomic resolution of restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Minor modifications of the sampling schemes, and more use of direct sequencing, has the potential to solve these problems. Use of additional methods, such as in situ hybridization to ribosomal RNA or hybridization coupled to microarrays, are necessary to open up the analysis of the mycelial component of community structure.
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            Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: above- and below-ground views

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              Low diversity and high host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi in western Amazonia, a neotropical biodiversity hotspot.

              Information about the diversity of tropical microbes, including fungi is relatively scarce. This study addresses the diversity, spatial distribution and host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) in a neotropical rainforest site in North East Ecuador. DNA sequence analysis of both symbionts revealed relatively low richness of EcMF as compared with the richness of temperate regions that contrasts with high plant (including host) diversity. EcMF community was positively autocorrelated up to 8.5+/-1.0-m distance-roughly corresponding to the canopy and potentially rooting area of host individuals. Coccoloba (Polygonaceae), Guapira and Neea (Nyctaginaceae) differed by their most frequent EcMF. Two-thirds of these EcMF preferred one of the host genera, a feature uncommon in boreal forests. Scattered distribution of hosts probably accounts for the low EcMF richness. This study demonstrates that the diversity of plants and their mycorrhizal fungi is not always related and host preference among EcMF can be substantial outside the temperate zone.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biodiversity and Conservation
                Biodivers Conserv
                Springer Nature
                0960-3115
                1572-9710
                August 2012
                November 4 2011
                : 21
                : 9
                : 2195-2220
                Article
                10.1007/s10531-011-0166-1
                7dac02d4-13e9-429c-98f6-0648b5919ee0
                © 2011
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10531-011-0166-1

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