Blog
About

52
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

      , *

      Toxins

      MDPI

      cyanotoxin, microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 161

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Climate. Blooms like it hot.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The rise of harmful cyanobacteria blooms: The potential roles of eutrophication and climate change

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria.

               V Paul,  Hans W. Paerl (2012)
              Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest (∼3.5 bya) oxygen evolving organisms, and they have had major impacts on shaping our modern-day biosphere. Conversely, biospheric environmental perturbations, including nutrient enrichment and climatic changes (e.g. global warming, hydrologic changes, increased frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones, more intense and persistent droughts), strongly affect cyanobacterial growth and bloom potentials in freshwater and marine ecosystems. We examined human and climatic controls on harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web disrupting) bloom-forming cyanobacteria (CyanoHABs) along the freshwater to marine continuum. These changes may act synergistically to promote cyanobacterial dominance and persistence. This synergy is a formidable challenge to water quality, water supply and fisheries managers, because bloom potentials and controls may be altered in response to contemporaneous changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes. In inland waters, hydrologic modifications, including enhanced vertical mixing and, if water supplies permit, increased flushing (reducing residence time) will likely be needed in systems where nutrient input reductions are neither feasible nor possible. Successful control of CyanoHABs by grazers is unlikely except in specific cases. Overall, stricter nutrient management will likely be the most feasible and practical approach to long-term CyanoHAB control in a warmer, stormier and more extreme world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                25 June 2014
                July 2014
                : 6
                : 7
                : 1951-1978
                Affiliations
                Department of Life Science, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110-743, Korea; E-Mail: iamboopathy@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: kijs@ 123456smu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-2287-5449; Fax: +82-2-2287-0070.
                toxins-06-01951
                10.3390/toxins6071951
                4113735
                24967641
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine

                cyanotoxin, anatoxins and saxitoxins, cylindrospermopsin, nodularin, microcystins

                Comments

                Comment on this article