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      Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–Dependent Leukocytic Infiltrates Are Responsible for Autoimmune Disease in Mrl- Fas lpr Mice

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          Abstract

          Infiltrating leukocytes may be responsible for autoimmune disease. We hypothesized that the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 recruits macrophages and T cells into tissues that, in turn, are required for autoimmune disease. Using the MRL- Fas lpr strain with spontaneous, fatal autoimmune disease, we constructed MCP-1–deficient MRL- Fas lpr mice. In MCP-1–intact MRL- Fas lpr mice, macrophages and T cells accumulate at sites (kidney tubules, glomeruli, pulmonary bronchioli, lymph nodes) in proportion to MCP-1 expression. Deleting MCP-1 dramatically reduces macrophage and T cell recruitment but not proliferation, protects from kidney, lung, skin, and lymph node pathology, reduces proteinuria, and prolongs survival. Notably, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and kidney Ig/C3 deposits are not diminished in MCP-1–deficient MRL- Fas lpr mice, highlighting the requirement for MCP-1–dependent leukocyte recruitment to initiate autoimmune disease. However, MCP-1–deficient mice are not completely protected from leukocytic invasion. T cells surrounding vessels with meager MCP-1 expression remain. In addition, downstream effector cytokines/chemokines are decreased in MCP-1–deficient mice, perhaps reflecting a reduction of cytokine-expressing leukocytes. Thus, MCP-1 promotes MRL- Fas lpr autoimmune disease through macrophage and T cell recruitment, amplified by increasing local cytokines/chemokines. We suggest that MCP-1 is a principal therapeutic target with which to combat autoimmune diseases.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Lymphoproliferation disorder in mice explained by defects in Fas antigen that mediates apoptosis.

          Fas antigen is a cell-surface protein that mediates apoptosis. It is expressed in various tissues including the thymus and has structural homology with a number of cell-surface receptors, including tumour necrosis factor receptor and nerve growth factor receptor. Mice carrying the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation have defects in the Fas antigen gene. The lpr mice develop lymphadenopathy and suffer from a systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease, indicating an important role for Fas antigen in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus.
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            Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 acts as a T-lymphocyte chemoattractant.

            We have utilized a transendothelial lymphocyte chemotaxis assay to identify and purify a lymphocyte chemoattractant in supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed identity with monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a chemoattractant previously thought to be specific for monocytes. Recombinant MCP-1 is chemoattractive for purified T lymphocytes and for CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphocyte preparations. The T-cell response to MCP-1 is dose-dependent and chemotactic, rather than chemokinetic. Phenotyping of chemoattracted T lymphocytes shows they are an activated memory subset. The response to MCP-1 by T lymphocytes can be duplicated in the absence of an endothelial monolayer and the majority of T-lymphocyte chemotactic activity in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants can be neutralized by antibody to MCP-1. Thus, MCP-1 is the major lymphocyte chemoattractant secreted by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is capable of acting as a potent T-lymphocyte, as well as monocyte, chemoattractant. This may help explain why monocytes and T lymphocytes of the memory subset are always found together at sites of antigen-induced inflammation.
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              Chemokines.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                20 December 1999
                : 190
                : 12
                : 1813-1824
                Affiliations
                [a ]Laboratory of Molecular Autoimmune Disease, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
                [b ]Department of Adult Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
                Article
                99-0677
                2195716
                10601356
                © 1999 The Rockefeller University Press
                Categories
                Original Article

                Medicine

                chemokine, gene disruption, lung, mouse, kidney

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