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      Pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina

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          Abstract

          Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health ( PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina, a well‐defined species and distinguishable fungus of the family Godroniaceae. The species G. abietina includes several varieties, races and biotypes that are found in different geographical locations, on different hosts and that vary in aggressiveness. The pathogen causes diseases on Pinus species and other conifers such as Abies spp., Picea spp., Larix spp. and Pseudotsuga spp. known as Scleroderris canker in North America and Brunchorstia dieback in Europe. G. abietina has been reported from 19 EU Member States, without apparent ecoclimatic factors limiting establishment. The pathogen is a protected zone ( PZ) quarantine pest (Annex IIB) for Ireland and the UK (Northern Ireland). The main European hosts are widespread throughout most of the EU and have been frequently planted in the PZ. The main means of spread are wind‐blown ascospores, rain‐splashed conidia, plants for planting and traded Christmas trees. Given that G. abietina is most damaging to species that are grown towards the limit of their range, impacts can be expected in the PZ, should the pathogen be introduced there. Risk reduction options include selection of disease‐free planting material, nursery inspections, selection of planting sites at some distance from infested plantations, appropriate spacing between plants and thinning. The main uncertainties concern the indeterminate endophytic stage of the fungus, the pathogen distribution and the future taxonomic status of G. abietina, given its intraspecific diversity. All the criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as potential PZ quarantine pest are met. The criterion of plants for planting being the main pathway for spread for regulated non‐quarantine pests is not met: plants for planting are only one of the means of spread of the pathogen.

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          Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA

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            Applying quality assurance procedures to environmental monitoring data: a case study.

            Managing data in the context of environmental monitoring is associated with a number of particular difficulties. These can be broadly split into issues originating from the inherent heterogeneity of the parameters sampled, problems related to the long time scale of most monitoring programmes and situations that arise when attempting to maximise cost-effectiveness. The complexity of environmental systems is reflected in the considerable effort and cost required to collect good quality data describing the influencing factors that can improve our understanding of the interrelationships and allow us to draw conclusions about how changes will affect the systems. The resulting information is also frequently elaborate, costly and irreplaceable. Since the quality of the results obtained from analysing the data can only be as good as the data, proper management practices should be considered at all stages of the monitoring activity, if the value of the information is to be properly exploited. Using a Quality Assurance system can aid considerably in improving the overall quality of a database, and good metadata will help in the interpretation of the results. The benefits of implementing Quality Assurance principles to project management and data validation are demonstrated for the information collected for the long-term monitoring of the effects of air pollution on the forest environment under Forest Focus. However, there are limits in the ability of any computer system to detect erroneous or poor quality data, and the best approach is to minimise errors at the collection phase of the project as far as possible.
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              A risk categorisation and analysis of the geographic and temporal dynamics of the European import of plants for planting

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EFSA J
                EFSA J
                10.1002/(ISSN)1831-4732
                EFS2
                EFSA Journal
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1831-4732
                09 November 2017
                November 2017
                : 15
                : 11 ( doiID: 10.1002/efs2.2017.15.issue-11 )
                : e05030
                Author notes
                [*] Correspondence: alpha@ 123456efsa.europa.eu
                Article
                EFS25030
                10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5030
                7010058
                7dc89c95-4ced-45d3-a04f-1dfb5c291ebf
                © 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Pages: 30, Words: 14563
                Categories
                Scientific Opinion
                Scientific Opinion
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                November 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.5 mode:remove_FC converted:21.01.2020

                european union,forest pathology,pest risk,plant health,plant pest,quarantine,tree diseases

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