Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has considerable effects on cardiac functions, including those of the right ventricle, left ventricle, and pulmonary blood vessels. Most of the increased mortality associated with COPD is due to cardiac involvement. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate the cardiac changes.
To assess the cardiac changes secondary to COPD by echocardiography and to find out the correlation between echocardiographic findings and severity of COPD, if there is any.
A total 40 of patients of COPD were selected and staged by pulmonary function test (PFT) and evaluated byechocardiography.
On echocardiographic evaluation of COPD, 50% cases had normal echocardiographic parameters. Measurable tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was observed in 27/40 cases (67.5%). Pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is defined as systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP)> 30 mmHg was observed in 17/27 (63%) cases in which prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe PH were 10/17 (58.82%), 4/17 (23.53%), and 3/17 (17.65%), respectively. The frequencies of PH in mild, moderate, severe, and very severe COPD were 16.67%, 54.55%, 60.00%, and 83.33%, respectively. Right atrial pressure was 10 mmHg in 82.5% cases and 15 mmHg in 17.5% cases. Cor pulmonale was observed in 7/17 (41.17%) cases; 7.50% cases had left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction and 47.5% cases had evidence of LV diastolic dysfunction defined as A ≥ E (peak mitral flow velocity of the early rapid filling wave (E), peak velocity of the late filling wave caused by atrial contraction (A) on mitral valve tracing) Left ventricle hypertrophy was found in 22.5% cases.