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      ACE Inhibitors in Congestive Heart Failure

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      ACE inhibitors, Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Quinapril, Heart failure

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          Abstract

          The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). In patients with chronic heart failure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as captopril, enalapril, and quinapril, have been shown to improve hemodynamics, reduce symptoms of fatigue and dyspnea, increase exerkise capacity, correct hyponatremia, reduce diuretic requirements and ventricular arrhythmias, and conserve potassium and magnesium. ACE inhibitors reduce circulating levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone and may reduce plasma norepinephrine and vasopressin levels. They are equally effective in patients with mild to moderate heart failure and in patients with severe cardiac impairment. ACE inhibitors are at least as beneficial as digitalis in patients with mild heart failure, and they may even be considered as first-line therapy. Promising results have also been obtained in patients with myocardial infarction, in whom long-term therapy with ACE inhibitors has prevented an increase in heart size. ACE inhibitors improve prognosis in patients with severe heart failure and in patients with hyponatremia; the question of effect on survival in mild to moderate heart failure has yet to be answered.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-5062-8
          978-3-318-01590-4
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1989
          1989
          12 November 2008
          : 76
          : Suppl 2
          : 42-49
          Affiliations
          Medizinische Universitätsklinik, Würzburg, FRG
          Article
          174558 Cardiology 1989;76:42–49
          10.1159/000174558
          2670220
          © 1989 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 8
          Categories
          ACE-Inhibition: State of the Art

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