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      Two-Year-Old Cognitive Outcomes in Children of Pregnant Women With Epilepsy in the Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs Study

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 3 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , 15 , Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs Investigator Group
      JAMA Neurology
      American Medical Association (AMA)

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          A Global Measure of Perceived Stress

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            Test-retest reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in primary insomnia.

            Psychometric evaluation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for primary insomnia. The study sample consisted of 80 patients with primary insomnia (DSM-IV). The length of the test-retest interval was either 2 days or several weeks. Validity analyses were calculated for PSQI data and data from sleep diaries, as well as polysomnography. To evaluate the specificity of the PSQI, insomnia patients were compared with a control group of 45 healthy subjects. In primary insomnia patients, the overall PSQI global score correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was .87. Validity analyses showed high correlations between PSQI and sleep log data and lower correlations with polysomnography data. A PSQI global score > 5 resulted in a sensitivity of 98.7 and specificity of 84.4 as a marker for sleep disturbances in insomnia patients versus controls. The PSQI has a high test-retest reliability and a good validity for patients with primary insomnia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.
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              Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration and fetal alcohol syndrome.

              The deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Here it is reported that ethanol, acting by a dual mechanism [blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and excessive activation of GABA(A) receptors], triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat forebrain. Vulnerability coincides with the period of synaptogenesis, which in humans extends from the sixth month of gestation to several years after birth. During this period, transient ethanol exposure can delete millions of neurons from the developing brain. This can explain the reduced brain mass and neurobehavioral disturbances associated with human fetal alcohol syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JAMA Neurology
                JAMA Neurol
                American Medical Association (AMA)
                2168-6149
                June 07 2021
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California
                [2 ]Pediatric Neuropsychology International, Augusta, Georgia
                [3 ]Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
                [4 ]Emmes Company, Rockville, Maryland
                [5 ]Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
                [6 ]Department of Neurology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
                [7 ]Minnesota Epilepsy Group, St Paul, Minnesota
                [8 ]Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
                [9 ]Northwell Health, Manhasset, New York
                [10 ]Department of Neurology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
                [11 ]Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York
                [12 ]Department of Neurology, New York University, New York
                [13 ]Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle
                [14 ]Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
                [15 ]for the Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs Investigator Group
                Article
                10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1583
                34096986
                7de03021-87a0-4572-a2c9-0b16ef98d49f
                © 2021
                History

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