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      Fruit-Derived Polysaccharides and Terpenoids: Recent Update on the Gastroprotective Effects and Mechanisms

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          Ulceration in the stomach develops in peptic ulcer disease when there is a loss of protective mucosal layers, particularly in Helicobacter pylori infection. Antibiotic therapy has failed to eradicate and impede the colonization of H. pylori. Despite given treatment, recurrent bleeding can occur and lead to death in the affected individual. The disease progression is also related to the non-steroidal inflammatory drug and stress. There are extensive research efforts to identify the gastroprotective property from various alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins compounds from plants and marine. These natural products are believed to be safe for consumption. However, not much attention was given to summarize the carbohydrate and terpenoidal anti-ulcer compounds. Hence, this review will cover the possible mechanisms and information about acidic hydroxylans, arabinogalactan and rhamnogalacturon; and limonene, pinene, lupeol, citral, ursolic acid and nomilin to exemplify on the gastroprotective properties of polysaccharides and terpenoid, respectively, obtained from fruits. These compounds could act as a prebiotic to prevent the inhabitation of H. pylori, modulate the inflammation, suppress gastric cancer growth, and capable of stimulating the reparative mechanisms on the affected regions. Finally, this review provides the future research prospects of these natural compounds in an effort to develop new therapy for gastrointestinal tissue healing.

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          Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.

           Jie Liu (1995)
          Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver disorders. The mechanism of hepatoprotection by these two compounds may involve the inhibition of toxicant activation and the enhancement of the body defense systems. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid have also been long-recognized to have antiinflammatory and antihyperlipidemic properties in laboratory animals, and more research is warranted to develop a therapy for patients. Recently, both compounds have been noted for their antitumor-promotion effects, which are stimulating additional research in this field. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are relatively non-toxic, and have been used in cosmetics and health products. The possible mechanisms for the pharmacological effects and the prospects for these two compounds are discussed.
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            Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils—Present Status and Future Perspectives

            Extensive documentation on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their constituents has been carried out by several workers. Although the mechanism of action of a few essential oil components has been elucidated in many pioneering works in the past, detailed knowledge of most of the compounds and their mechanism of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important for the determination of the effect of essential oils on different microorganisms, how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, and their interaction with food matrix components. Also, recent studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with essential oils have significant antimicrobial potential against multidrug- resistant pathogens due to an increase in chemical stability and solubility, decreased rapid evaporation and minimized degradation of active essential oil components. The application of encapsulated essential oils also supports their controlled and sustained release, which enhances their bioavailability and efficacy against multidrug-resistant pathogens. In the recent years, due to increasingly negative consumer perceptions of synthetic preservatives, interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified. Moreover, the development of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, etc. is a great challenge to the medical field for treating the infections caused by them, and hence, there is a pressing need to look for new and novel antimicrobials. To overcome these problems, nano-encapsulation of essential oils and exploiting the synergies between essential oils, constituents of essential oils, and antibiotics along with essential oils have been recommended as an answer to this problem. However, less is known about the interactions that lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects. A contributing role of this knowledge could be the design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and understanding of the interplay between the components of crude essential oils. This review is written with the purpose of giving an overview of current knowledge about the antimicrobial properties of essential oils and their mechanisms of action, components of essential oils, nano-encapsulated essential oils, and synergistic combinations of essential oils so as to find research areas that can facilitate applications of essential oils to overcome the problem of multidrug-resistant micro-organisms.
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              Helicobacter pylori infection: An overview of bacterial virulence factors and pathogenesis

              Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis and disease outcomes are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial virulence factors, host, and environmental factors. After H. pylori enters the host stomach, four steps are critical for bacteria to establish successful colonization, persistent infection, and disease pathogenesis: (1) Survival in the acidic stomach; (2) movement toward epithelium cells by flagella-mediated motility; (3) attachment to host cells by adhesins/receptors interaction; (4) causing tissue damage by toxin release. Over the past 20 years, the understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis has been improved by studies focusing on the host and bacterial factors through epidemiology researches and molecular mechanism investigations. These include studies identifying the roles of novel virulence factors and their association with different disease outcomes, especially the bacterial adhesins, cag pathogenicity island, and vacuolating cytotoxin. Recently, the development of large-scale screening methods, including proteomic, and transcriptomic tools, has been used to determine the complex gene regulatory networks in H. pylori. In addition, a more available complete genomic database of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with different gastrointestinal diseases worldwide is helpful to characterize this bacterium. This review highlights the key findings of H. pylori virulence factors reported over the past 20 years.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                22 June 2018
                : 9
                1Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University , Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
                2Department of Pharmacology, Anwarul Uloom College of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University – Hyderabad (JNTUH) , Hyderabad, India
                3Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia , Seri Kembangan, Malaysia
                4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University , Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
                5Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia , Seri Kembangan, Malaysia
                6Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University , Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mingliang Cheng, Guiyang Medical University, China

                Reviewed by: Wentzel Christoffel Gelderblom, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa; Jun Liu, Yangzhou University, China

                *Correspondence: Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, safwan.aucp@ 123456gmail.com ; mskhan@ 123456ju.edu.sa Pooi Ling Mok, rachelmok2005@ 123456gmail.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2018 Ali Khan, Khundmiri, Khundmiri, Al-Sanea and Mok.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 116, Pages: 9, Words: 0


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