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      A new species of Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 (Nematoda, Camallanidae) from Astronotusocellatus (Agassiz, 1831) (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in Brazil

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          A new species of Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 was found as a parasite of the fish Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831) from a lake in the Jardim Botânico Bosque Rodrigues Alves, Belém, Brazil. Procamallanus spiculastriatus sp. n. has a smooth buccal capsule and a well-developed basal ring that is armed with four sclerotized tooth-like structures. The male of the new species is similar to the two species that are known from Brazilian fish, P. peraccuratus Pinto, Fábio, Noronha & Rolas, 1976, and P. annipetterae Kohn & Fernandes, 1988, by the absence of the gubernaculum. It differs from these two by the morphology of the buccal capsule, the number are arrangement of the caudal papillae in males, the size and morphology of the spicules and the shape of the tail of both sexes. Procamallanus spiculastriatus sp. n. is the third species discovered in fish from Brazil. This finding extends the geographical distribution of the genus into the Brazilian Amazon.

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          Phylogenetic relationships of some spirurine nematodes (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida: Spirurina) parasitic in fishes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

          Abstract: Small subunit rRNA sequences were obtained from 38 representatives mainly of the nematode orders Spirurida (Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Daniconematidae, Philometridae, Physalopteridae, Rhabdochonidae, Skrjabillanidae) and, in part, Ascaridida (Anisakidae, Cucullanidae, Quimperiidae). The examined nematodes are predominantly parasites of fishes. Their analyses provided well-supported trees allowing the study ofphylogenetic relationships among some spirurine nematodes. The present results support the placement of Cucullanidae at the base of the suborder Spirurina and, based on the position of the genus Philonema (subfamily Philoneminae) forming a sister group to Skrjabillanidae (thus Philoneminae should be elevated to Philonemidae), the paraphyly of the Philometridae. Comparison of a large number of sequences of representatives of the latter family supports the paraphyly of the genera Philometra, Philometroides and Dentiphilometra. The validity of the newly included genera Afrophilometra and Caranginema is not supported. These results indicate geographical isolation has not been the cause of speciation in this parasite group and no coevolution with fish hosts is apparent. On the contrary, the group of South-American species ofAlinema, Nilonema and Rumai is placed in an independent branch, thus markedly separated from other family members. Molecular data indicate that the skrjabillanid subfamily Esocineminae (represented by Esocinema bohemicum) should be either elevated to the rank of an independent family or Daniconematidae (Mexiconema africanum) should be decreased to Daniconematinae and transferred to the family Skrjabillanidae. Camallanid genera Camallanus and Procamallanus, as well as the subgenera Procamallanus and Spirocamallanus are confirmed to be paraphyletic. Paraphyly has also been found within Filarioidea, Habronematoidea and Thelazioidea and in Cystidicolidae, Physalopteridae and Thelaziidae. The results of the analyses also show that Neoascarophis, Spinitectus and Rhabdochona are monophyletic, in contrast to the paraphyletic genus Ascarophis. They further confirm the independence of two subgenera, Rhabdochona and Globochona, in the genus Rhabdochona. The necessity of further studies of fish-parasitizing representatives of additional nematode families not yet studied by molecular methods, such as Guyanemidae, Lucionematidae or Tetanonematidae, is underscored.
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            Os peixes de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Janauacá, Rio Solimões) e suas relações com os crustáceos ectoparasitas (Branchiura: Argulidae)

            Durante um período de treze meses, de março de 1979 a março de 1980, excursões semanais foram realizadas ao Janauacá, um complexo de, l.agos de várzea da Amazônia Central. Miltrezentos e trinta e cinco peixesde cinco ordens, dezenove famílias e. oitenta espécies foram examinados, visando a determinar os índices naturais de infestação por crustáceos da subclasse Branchiura. Dos peixes examinados 11% estavam parasitados e apresentaram uma média de cinco crustáceos por peixe. Os maiores índices de infestação ocorreram nos Siluroides, 29% de prevalência e 18,5 de intensidade de infestação, seguidos pelos Characoides com 8,4% e 2,5. Os Perciformes apresentaram o terceiro maior índi.ce, 7,4% de. prevalência e 2,0 de intensidade de infestação. Os menores índices ocorreram nos Osteoglossiformes, 3,0% e 5,0 e nos Clupeiformes com 4,0% e 1,0. Durante o período de coletas, dezoito espécies de peixes não ocorreram parasitadas por branquiuras. Catorze espécies de branquiuros foram coletados no lago Janauacá. Alguns aspectos taxionómicos , biogeográficos e econômicos dos peixes são abordados
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              Seasonal influence on the parasite fauna of a wild population of Astronotus ocellatus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

              Parasite infracommunities were studied in 202 specimens of Astronotus ocellatus collected from a freshwater lake in the State of Amapá, northern Brazil. Relationships between some host attributes (i.e., ontogeny, sex, and body size) and parasite infections were analyzed, but the primary focus was the seasonal variation in the parasite fauna. In total, 6,308,912 parasites belonging to 11 different taxa were found. Protozoa were the most abundant and dominant taxa, but monogeneans, trematode metacercariae, and nematode larvae were also prevalent and abundant. Fish ontogeny had a weak influence on parasite infection rates; juveniles were more parasitized by Dolops nana and Posthodiplostomum sp. The abundances of all parasite species were weakly correlated with host body size (low r(2) values), except D. nana, Contracaecum sp., and Posthodiplostomum sp., which exhibited no correlation between abundance and host body size. Prevalence and abundance were different between flood and drainage seasons for all parasite species, except for D. nana and the 2 metacercarial species. Astronotus ocellatus may represent a link in food-web transmissions for parasites because it is used both as definitive and intermediate host. The parasite fauna of A. ocellatus was composed primarily of ectoparasites, and this could be considered typical of fishes that inhabit lentic waters. Seasonality was a strong determinant in the parasite community structure.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2018
                15 October 2018
                : 790
                : 21-33
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Agentes Infecciosos e Parasitários – Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
                [2 ] Laboratório de Histologia e Embriologia Animal – Instituto da Saúde e Produção Animal – Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia – UFRA, Belém, Pará, 66.077-830, Brazil
                [3 ] Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Helmintologia ‘‘Profa Dra Reinalda Marisa Lanfredi’’ Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
                [4 ] Laboratorio de Morfología Animal, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo, 42001, México
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Elane Guerreiro Giese ( elane.giese@ 123456ufra.edu.br )

                Academic editor: Y. Mutafchiev

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.790.24745
                6198027
                30364795
                Raul Henrique da Silva Pinheiro, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo, Scott Monks, Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos, Elane Guerreiro Giese

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Camallanidae
                Cichlidae
                Nemata
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Americas
                Brazil

                Animal science & Zoology

                nematode, amazon, fish, helminth

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