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      A small neighborhood well-organized: seasonal and daily activity patterns of the community of large and mid-sized mammals around waterholes in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Animal communities have complex patterns of ecological segregation at different levels according to food resources, habitats, behavior, and activity patterns. Understanding these patterns among the community is essential for the conservation of the whole ecosystem. However, these networks are difficult to study nowadays, due to anthropic disturbances and local extinctions, making it difficult to conclude if segregation patterns are natural or human-induced. We studied ecological segregation in a community of large and mid-sized mammals in the Great Gobi Desert, a remote arid area free from recent extinctions and human disturbances. Activity patterns of 10 sympatric mammal species were monitored around 6 waterholes through camera-trapping over a two-year period, and analyzed them primarily through circular statistics.

          Results

          Complex patterns of spatial, seasonal, and daily segregation were found. Overlap in seasonal activity was detected in only 3 of the 45 possible pairs of species. Four species used the waterholes all-year-round, while others peaked their activity during different periods. The Bactrian camel showed continuous daily activity, the grey wolf had bimodal activity, and the argali and Siberian ibex were diurnal, while the others had nocturnal peaks during different hours. Daily and spatial overlap were both detected in only 6 of the 45 pairs. Only one species pair (snow leopard and Eurasian lynx) showed an overlap at two levels: seasonal and daily. Climate and moon phase significantly affected the activity of certain species.

          Conclusions

          Altogether, the results showed complex patterns of ecological segregation at different levels in the use of the key resource in arid environments: waterholes. These results are important for understanding the biology of these species under natural conditions, as well as potential changes in altered ecosystems, and may help to design conservation strategies.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Re-epithelialization and immune cell behaviour in an ex vivo human skin model

          A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.
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            Global warming and 21st century drying

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              Competition refuges and coexistence: an example from Serengeti carnivores

               Sarah Durant (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ceacero@ftz.czu.cz
                Journal
                Front Zool
                Front Zool
                Frontiers in Zoology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1742-9994
                17 May 2021
                17 May 2021
                2021
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.15866.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 2238 631X, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, , Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, ; Prague, Czechia
                [2 ]GRID grid.425564.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0587 3863, Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, ; Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
                [3 ]GRID grid.260731.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2324 0259, School of Arts and Sciences, , National University of Mongolia, ; Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
                Article
                412
                10.1186/s12983-021-00412-1
                8130113
                34001162
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences
                Award ID: IGA-20195011
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

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