Deltochilum Eschscholtz, 1822 is perhaps the most speciose genus of the tribe Deltochilini sensu Tarasov & Dimitrov (2016) (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and has been traditionally divided into eight subgenera. Among them, the subgenus Deltohyboma Lane, 1946, is the most speciose with 47 species, five of which are described here ( D. genieri sp. nov., D. gilli sp. nov., D. susanae sp. nov., D. bolivariensis sp. nov. and D. inesae sp. nov.), and at least 165 species still undescribed. Due to the large number of species, and for practical purposes, the subgenus is here divided into 19 species-groups, with D. inesae sp. nov. left as incertae sedis. This division into species-groups will help in the reliable identification of species and will aid in the completion of the revision of subgenus. This report is the first part of the taxonomic revision of the subgenus Deltohyboma; it is based on the examination of all type specimens and almost 9,800 specimens of which approximately 1,200, mostly males, had their genitalia studied. The 19 species-groups recognized here are based mainly on characters described for the first time for Deltohyboma, namely, the state of a) the anterior margin of the clypeus (between the clypeal teeth), b) the internal margin of hypomera, c) the ventral face of the protibia, d) the posterior margin of the metafemur, and e) several new characters resulting from the first detailed study of the aedeagus and the endophallus of the group. Diagnosis, description, geographic distribution, composition and identifications keys (for males as well as males and females) for the species-groups are provided.