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      Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Delivery of Chemotherapeutics: A Review


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          The efficacy of current standard chemotherapy is suboptimal due to the poor solubility and short half-lives of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as their high toxicity and lack of specificity which may result in severe side effects, noncompliance and patient inconvenience. The application of nanotechnology has revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry and attracted increasing attention as a significant means for optimizing the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and enhancing their efficiency and safety profiles. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are lipid-based formulations that have been broadly studied as drug delivery systems. They have a solid matrix at room temperature and are considered superior to many other traditional lipid-based nanocarriers such as nanoemulsions, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) due to their enhanced physical stability, improved drug loading capacity, and biocompatibility. This review focuses on the latest advances in the use of NLCs as drug delivery systems and their preparation and characterization techniques with special emphasis on their applications as delivery systems for chemotherapeutic agents and different strategies for their use in tumor targeting.

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          Nanostructured lipid matrices for improved microencapsulation of drugs.

          At the beginning of the nineties solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been introduced as a novel nanoparticulate delivery system produced from solid lipids. Potential problems associated with SLN such as limited drug loading capacity, adjustment of drug release profile and potential drug expulsion during storage are avoided or minimised by the new generation, the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC are produced by mixing solid lipids with spatially incompatible lipids leading to special structures of the lipid matrix, i.e. three types of NLC: (I) the imperfect structured type, (II) the structureless type and (III) the multiple type. A special preparation process-applicable to NLC but also SLN-allows the production of highly concentrated particle dispersions (>30-95%). Potential applications as drug delivery system are described.
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            Selective estrogen-receptor modulators -- mechanisms of action and application to clinical practice.

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              Nanostructured lipid carriers: Promising drug delivery systems for future clinics.

              During the past decade, the number of studies describing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs)-based formulations has been dramatically increased. The raise in NLC exploitation is essentially due to defeated barriers within the technological process of lipid-based nanoparticles' formulation and increased knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of transport of NLCs via different routes of administration. This review article aims to give an overview on the current state of the art of NLC as controlled drug delivery systems for future clinics through novel NLC applications providing examples of successfull outcomes. The reported data clearly illustrate the promise of these nanoparticles for novel treatments in the near future. From the Clinical Editor: The understanding of the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)-based formulations has improved with continuing research recently. The result has seen an increase in the use of these in the clinical setting. In this comprehensive review, the authors discussed the current state and major challenges in the use of nanostructured lipid carriers as controlled drug delivery systems.

                Author and article information

                23 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 12
                : 3
                : 288
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE; u00042352@ 123456sharjah.ac.ae
                [2 ]Research Institute of Medical & Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE; u00044748@ 123456sharjah.ac.ae
                [3 ]NanoBioCel Group, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; gorka.orive@ 123456ehu.es
                [4 ]University Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Oral Implantology—UIRMI (UPV/EHU-Fundación Eduardo Anitua), 01006 Vitoria, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mhaider@ 123456sharjah.ac.ae ; Tel.: +971-65057414; Fax: +971-65585812
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 10 February 2020
                : 14 March 2020

                nanostructured lipid carriers,chemotherapeutic agents,drug delivery systems,drug targeting,lipid-based nanoparticles


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