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      Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

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          Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently complicates the course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and is associated with significantly worse outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of PH in IPF patients and evaluate the correlation between clinical parameters and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP).


          Hospitalized patients with IPF, who were evaluated for sPAP by Doppler echocardiography from January 2004 to December 2011, were enrolled in our study. Patients were defined as PH by an estimated sPAP > 50 mmHg and graded as PH likely, PH possible and PH unlikely, based on the 2009 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society PH Guidelines. The correlations between clinical parameters and sPAP were analyzed by multiple linear regression.


          Totally, 119 IPF patients were enrolled in our study and 28 (23.5%), 20 (16.8%) and 71 (59.7%) patients were PH likely, PH possible and PH unlikely, respectively. Borg dyspnea score was positively correlated with sPAP, r = 0.467, P < 0.001. Oxygen saturation was negatively correlated with sPAP, r = −0.416, P < 0.001. Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide percentage predicted was negatively correlated with sPAP, r = −0.424, P = 0.003. N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide and pulmonary artery width was positively correlated with sPAP, r = 0.452, P = 0.011 and r = 0.513, P < 0.001, respectively.


          The incidence of PH in IPF patients was 23.5% in a single center of China. PH may worsen the dyspnea, right heart dysfunction and decrease the life quality of the patients with IPF.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Standardisation of spirometry.

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            Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion.

             Frank Borg (1981)
            There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
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              An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management.

              This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and contains sections on definition and epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, natural history, staging and prognosis, treatment, and monitoring disease course. For the diagnosis and treatment sections, pragmatic GRADE evidence-based methodology was applied in a question-based format. For each diagnosis and treatment question, the committee graded the quality of the evidence available (high, moderate, low, or very low), and made a recommendation (yes or no, strong or weak). Recommendations were based on majority vote. It is emphasized that clinicians must spend adequate time with patients to discuss patients' values and preferences and decide on the appropriate course of action.

                Author and article information

                Chin Med J (Engl)
                Chin. Med. J
                Chinese Medical Journal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                05 April 2015
                : 128
                : 7
                : 896-901
                Copyright: © 2015 Chinese Medical Journal

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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