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      Less common bacterial, fungal and viral infections: review of management in the pregnant patient


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          This review is a comprehensive summary of treatment options for pregnant patients with less common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. It offers guidance to clinicians based on the most recently published evidence-based research and expert recommendations. A search of MEDLINE (inception to March 2021) and the CDC website was performed. Liposomal amphotericin B is the preferred therapy for cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, oesophageal candidiasis, and coccidioidomycosis, especially during the first trimester due to teratogenic concerns with azole antifungals. For oral candidiasis, clotrimazole troches or miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablets are recommended. A β-lactam antimicrobial is preferred over doxycycline for various manifestations of Lyme disease and the drug of choice for Pneumocystis pneumonia is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Acyclovir is the preferred antiviral for varicella zoster virus. Fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and aminoglycosides should be avoided if possible and there are alternate agents available for an effective treatment regimen. There is a scarcity of clinical data in pregnant patients with less common bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This population lacks definitive recommendations in many clinical practice guidelines. The key to optimizing therapy is a comprehensive review of the available evidence and a careful balance of risks and benefits before final treatment decisions.

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          It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
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            The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline. This guideline provides recommendations on the clinical and public health management of tuberculosis in children and adults in settings in which mycobacterial cultures, molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and radiographic studies, among other diagnostic tools, are available on a routine basis. For all recommendations, literature reviews were performed, followed by discussion by an expert committee according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Given the public health implications of prompt diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis, empiric multidrug treatment is initiated in almost all situations in which active tuberculosis is suspected. Additional characteristics such as presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, and response to treatment influence management decisions. Specific recommendations on the use of case management strategies (including directly observed therapy), regimen and dosing selection in adults and children (daily vs intermittent), treatment of tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection (duration of tuberculosis treatment and timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy), as well as treatment of extrapulmonary disease (central nervous system, pericardial among other sites) are provided. The development of more potent and better-tolerated drug regimens, optimization of drug exposure for the component drugs, optimal management of tuberculosis in special populations, identification of accurate biomarkers of treatment effect, and the assessment of new strategies for implementing regimens in the field remain key priority areas for research. See the full-text online version of the document for detailed discussion of the management of tuberculosis and recommendations for practice.
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              Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

              Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous treatment guidelines published in 2000 (Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30:688-95). The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them. Since 2000, several new antifungal agents have become available, and clinical trials and case series have increased our understanding of the management of histoplasmosis. Advances in immunosuppressive treatment for inflammatory disorders have created new questions about the approach to prevention and treatment of histoplasmosis. New information, based on publications from the period 1999-2006, are incorporated into this guideline document. In addition, the panel added recommendations for management of histoplasmosis in children for those aspects that differ from aspects in adults.

                Author and article information

                Drugs Context
                Drugs Context
                Drugs in Context
                BioExcel Publishing Ltd
                22 September 2021
                : 10
                : 2021-4-3
                [1 ]Novant Health, NC, USA
                [2 ]University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Columbia, SC, USA
                [3 ]Prisma Health Midlands, Columbia, SC, USA
                [4 ]University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Jackson, MS, USA
                [5 ]Midwestern University College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, IL, USA
                [6 ]University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Savannah, GA, USA
                [7 ]Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy, Meridian, MS, USA
                [8 ]Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondece: Milena Murray, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, 555 31st St, Downers Grove, IL, 60515, USA. Email: mmurra@ 123456midwestern.edu
                Copyright © 2021 Gould AP, Winders HR, Stover KR, Bookstaver PB, Griffin B, Bland CM, Eiland LS, Murray M

                Published by Drugs in Context under Creative Commons License Deed CC BY NC ND 4.0 which allows anyone to copy, distribute, and transmit the article provided it is properly attributed in the manner specified below. No commercial use without permission.

                : 23 April 2021
                : 24 August 2021

                antibiotics,antifungals,antivirals,bacterial infection,fungal infection,pregnancy,teratogenicity,viral infection


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