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      Relationship of drinking alcohol and smoking to prevalence of open-angle glaucoma. The Beaver Dam Eye Study.

      Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alcohol Drinking, adverse effects, epidemiology, Data Collection, Female, Glaucoma, Open-Angle, etiology, Humans, Intraocular Pressure, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Prevalence, Questionnaires, Smoking, Visual Fields, Wisconsin

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          To evaluate a possible association of glaucoma with alcohol ingestion and cigarette-smoking behavior. A population-based survey was performed of persons 43 to 84 years of age in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (n = 4926). The diagnosis of glaucoma was based on visual field testing, measurement of intraocular pressure, and cup-to-disc ratios based on detailed protocols for examination, measurement, and gradings of photographs. Alcohol intake and smoking history were based on questionnaire responses. The prevalence of glaucoma in "heavy drinkers," whether current or past, was contrasted with the prevalence in those not reporting heavy drinking. Prevalences in never, past, and current smokers were compared. There was no difference in frequency of glaucoma by drinking status. Similarly, there was no difference in the frequency of glaucoma by cigarette-smoking status. In these prevalence data, neither heavy drinking nor cigarette-smoking behavior was related to the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma. This finding may reflect a real absence of a pathologic effect.

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