Objective To understand physical health of pre-school children aged 3–6, so as to analyze the early-life influencing factors, and to provide a reference for physical health promotion of preschool children.
Methods The method of random sampling was used to select 1 580 preschoolers aged from 3–6 in Guangzhou. National physical health test and questionnaire survey were conducted to assess physical health.
Results The physical fitness pass rate of preschool children was 87.2%, among which the excellent rate was 30.8%. With the increase of age, the rate of good physique of both boys and girls increased. There were statistical differences in body shape indexes (except dermal fold thickness) between male and female children at all ages ( P<0.01). The rate of overweight and obesity was 14.7%, which was higher in boys (17.2%) than in girls (12.0%). There were significant differences between overweight and non-overweight obese people (χ 2=4.84, 3.96, 5.73, 4.85, P<0.05). Logistic regression showed that preterm birth was negatively correlated with the rate of good physique of preschool children ( OR=0.81, P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between birth weight greater than gestational age and the rate of physical fitness of preschool children ( OR=1.37, P<0.05).
Conclusion Preschool children aged 3–6 years old in Guangzhou have poor physical health overall, and the rate of good physical health is related to factors such as preterm gestational week in early life delivery and birth weight greater than the gestational age.
【摘要】 目的 了解广州市3~6岁学龄前儿童的体质健康状况, 分析其生命早期影响因素, 为提升学龄前儿童体质健康 水平提供参考依据。 方法 整群随机抽取广州市1 580名3~6岁学龄前儿童进行《国民体质测定标准手册(幼儿部分)》 测试和问卷调査。 结果 学龄前儿童体质及格率为87.2%, 优良率为30.8%。随着年龄的增长, 男、女童体质优良率呈上 升趋势。男、女童身体形态指标(男童皮褶厚度除外)各年龄段间差异均有统计学意义( P值均<0.01)。超重肥胖率为 14.7%, 且男童(17.2%)髙于女童(12.0%)。超重肥胖者和非超重肥胖者不同体质评级差异均有统计学意义(χ 2值分别为 4.84, 3.96, 5.73, 4.85, P值均<0.05)。Logistic回归分析显示, 早产与学龄前儿童体质优良率呈负相关( OR=0.81, P<0.05); 出生体重大于胎龄儿与学龄前儿童体质优良率呈正相关( OR=1.37, P<0.05)。 结论 广州市3~6岁学龄前儿童整体体质 健康水平较差, 体质优良率与生命早期分娩孕周、出生体重等因素相关。